posted May 12th, 2010; last edited May 12th, 2010 –– David Sibley

References for The Sibley Guide to Bird Life & Behavior

Family chapters: further reading

Organized taxonomically by family names below is the list of “further reading” for each chapter. This is a long list – you can either scroll down or search within the page for the family you are interested in.

An explanation of the lists and some general references are included below.

The Sibley Guide to Bird Life & Behavior was conceived as a popular reference giving the average birdwatcher or student access to a broad range of information about birds. Nearly all of the information in the book is based on published research, and we acknowledge our debt to the work of countless ornithologists and naturalists.

In scientific literature published references are cited in the body of the writing. The most common form is to list the reference after a specific fact that is not common knowledge, for example: “…this species lays an average of 6 eggs, but as many as 12 eggs have been recorded in a single nest (Smith, 1985)”. In this example someone with the last name Smith published a paper or a book in 1985 which included the information on clutch size. An alphabetical listing by author of all the literature cited in a paper will tell the reader exactly what journal and what pages “Smith, 1985″ can be found in. The reader can then go back to the original source of the data for further reading or to double check details like just how sure Smith was about the record of 12 eggs in one nest.

In The Sibley Guide to Bird Life & Behavior we chose not to follow the common practice in the scientific literature of inserting citations into the text.  We made this decision because we felt that many people would find the book less readable if citations were included, and because the inclusion of citations and a comprehensive reference list would have taken up many extra pages and reduced the amount of biological information that the chapters could cover.  As practicing ornithologists, however, we recognize that many readers will want to follow up on ideas, delve further into the literature, or simply check out the original sources.  Consequently, we asked each of the authors to provide us with a list of key references.  We suggested that they include any major works on the family, plus specific papers that deal with topics that receive particular attention in the chapters. In some cases, we have augmented these lists with additional references that we felt covered topics that readers would find especially interesting.   No doubt some will find these lists incomplete, but we also wanted to avoid lists that were so long as to be unwieldy to use. If you are searching for information on a particular species and cannot find appropriate citations here, we suggest that you check the Birds of North America series, edited by Alan Poole and Frank Gill (Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, 1992-present; accounts for all North American breeding species are projected to be available by the end of 2002).  These life-history reviews provide the most comprehensive information available for North America birds.  For summary information on individual species we suggest The Birders Handbook by Paul R. Ehrlich, David S. Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1988) or Lives of North American Birds by Kenn Kaufmann (Houghton-Mifflin, New York, 1996).  For extensive reviews of the scientific literature on each bird family and summary information on species found outside the United States and Canada, the best general reference is the fantastic Handbook of the Birds of the World, edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and Jordi Sargatal (Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, 1992-present; currently 6 of a projected 18 volumes have been completed – collectively covering most nonpasserine bird families).  These general references, and others mentioned in the Introduction to the book, generally are not included in the reference lists that follow.

If you have questions or comments please leave a comment or send an email. Thanks.

References

LOONS

Family Gaviidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Carboneras, C. 1992. Family Gaviidae (divers). Pages 162-172 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (Eds.). 1977. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume I. Ostrich to ducks. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 42-65).

Gilbert, G., P. K. McGregor, and G. Tyler. 1994. Vocal individuality as a census tool: practical considerations illustrated by a study of two rare species. Journal of Field Ornithology 65:335-348.

McIntyre, J. W. 1988. The common loon : spirit of northern lakes. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

GREBES

Family Podicipedidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Brua, R. B. 1996. Impact of embryonic vocalizations on the incubation behaviour of eared grebes. Behaviour 133:145-160.

Cooper, S. D., D. W. Winkler, and P. H. Lenz. 1984. The effect of grebe predation on a brine shrimp population. Journal of Animal Ecology 53:51-64.

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (Eds.). 1977. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume I. Ostrich to ducks. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 65-112).

Llimona, F, and J. del Hoyo. 1992. Family Podicipedidae (grebes). Pages 174-196 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Piersma, T. 1988. Breast muscle atrophy and constraints on foraging during the flightless period of wing moulting Great Crested Grebes. Ardea 76:96-106.

Piersma, T., and M. R. van Eerden. 1989. Feather eating in Great Crested Grebes Podiceps cristatus: a unique solution to the problems of debris and gastric parasites in fish-eating birds. Ibis 131:477-486.

ALBATROSSES

Family Diomedeidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Carboneras, C. 1992. Family Diomedeidae (albatrosses). Pages 198-215 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Cole, L. 2000. A first Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta, in California and a critical re-examination of northern hemisphere records of the former Diomedea cauta complex. North American Birds 54:124-136.

Jouventin, P., and H. Weimerskirch. 1990. Satellite tracking of Wandering albatrosses. Nature 343:746-748.

Langston, N. E., and S. Rowher. 1996. Molt-breeding tradeoffs in Albatrosses: life history implications for big birds. Oikos 76:498-510.

Nevitt, G., R. R. Veit, and P. Kareiva. 1995. Dimethyl sulphide as a foraging cue for Antarctic procellariiform seabirds. Nature 376:680-682.

Nevitt, G. 1999. Foraging by seabirds on an olfactory landscape. American Scientist 87:46-53.

Nunn, G. B., J. Cooper, P. Jouventin, C. J. R. Robertson, and G. G. Robertson. 1996. Evolutionary relationships among extant albatrosses (Procellariiformes: Diomedeidae) established from complete cytochrome-b gene sequences. Auk 113:784-801.

Robertson, G., and R. Gates. 1997. Albatross biology and conservation. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.

Warham, J. 1990. The petrels: their ecology and breeding systems. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Warham, J. 1996. The behaviour, population biology and physiology of the petrels. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Weimerskirch, H., M. Salamolard, F. Sarrazin, and P. Jouventin. 1993. Foraging strategy of Wandering Albatross through the breeding season: a study using satellite telemetry. Auk 110:325-342

SHEARWATERS AND PETRELS

Family Procellariidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Bretagnolle, V. 1993. Adaptive significance of seabird coloration: the case of procellariiforms. American Naturalist 142:141-173.

Bourne, W. R. P. 1983. The Soft-plumaged Petrel, the Gon-gon and the Freira, Pterodroma mollis, P. feae, and P. madeira. Bulletin of the British Ornithologist’ Club 103:52-58.

Carboneras, C. 1992. Family Procellariidae (petrels and shearwaters). Pages 216-257 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Nevitt, G., R. R. Veit, and P. Kareiva. 1995. Dimethyl sulphide as a foraging cue for Antarctic procellariiform seabirds. Nature 376:680-682.

Nevitt, G. 1999. Foraging by seabirds on an olfactory landscape. American Scientist 87:46-53.

Pennycuick, C. J. 1987. Flight of seabirds. Pages 43-62 in Seabirds: feeding ecology and role in marine ecosystems (J. P. Croxall, Ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Veit, R. R., J. A. McGowan, D. G. Ainley, T. R. Wahls, and P. Pyle. 1997. Apex marine predator declines ninety percent in association with changing oceanic climate. Global Change Biology 3:23-28.

Waldvogel, J. A. 1989. Olfactory orientation by birds. Current Ornithology 6:269-321.

Warham, J. 1990. The petrels: their ecology and breeding systems. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Warham, J. 1996. The behaviour, population biology and physiology of the petrels. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

STORM-PETRELS

Family Hydrobatidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Ainley, D. G. 1980. Geographic variation in Leach’s Storm-Petrel. Auk 97:837-853.

Ainley, D. G. 1983. Further notes on variation in Leach’s Storm-Petrel. Auk 100:230-233.

Ainley, D. G., R. P. Henderson, and C. S. Strong. 1990. Leach’s Storm-Petrel and Ashy Storm-Petrel. Pages 128-162 in Seabirds of the Farallon Islands (D. G. Ainley and R. J. Boekelheide, Eds.). Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Bourne, W. R. P., and J. R. Jehl, Jr. 1982. Variation and nomenclature of Leach’s Storm-Petrels. Auk 99:793-797.

Carboneras, C. 1992. Family Hydrobatidae (storm-petrels). Pages 258-271 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Nevitt, G., R. R. Veit, and P. Kareiva. 1995. Dimethyl sulphide as a foraging cue for Antarctic procellariiform seabirds. Nature 376:680-682.

Nevitt, G. 1999. Foraging by seabirds on an olfactory landscape. American Scientist 87:46-53.

Warham, J. 1990. The petrels: their ecology and breeding systems. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Warham, J. 1996. The behaviour, population biology and physiology of the petrels. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

TROPICBIRDS

Family Phaethontidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Human

Orta, J. 1992. Family Phaethontidae (tropicbirds). Pages 280-289 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

BOOBIES AND GANNETS

Family Sulidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Carboneras, C. 1992. Family Sulidae (gannets and boobies). Pages 312-325 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Mock, D. W., H. Drummond, and C. H. Stinson. 1990. Avian siblicide. American Scientist 78:438-449.

Nelson, B. 1978. The gannet. Buteo Books, Vermillion, SD. Nelson, B. 1978. The Sulidae: gannets and boobies. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

PELICANS

Family Pelecanidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Cracraft, J. 1985. Monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of the Pelecaniformes: a numerical cladistic analysis. Auk 102:834-853.

Elliott, A. 1992. Family Pelecanidae (pelicans). Pages 290-311 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Sanio, N., M. Fasola, and E. Waiyakl. 1995. Do White Pelicans Pelecanus onocrotalus benefit from foraging in flocks using synchronous feeding? Ibis 137:227-230.

Schreiber, R. W., G. E. Woolfenden, and W. E. Curtsinger. 1975. Prey capture by the Brown Pelican. Auk 92:649-654.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

CORMORANTS

Family Phalacrocoracidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Ainley, D. G., D. W. Anderson, and P. R. Kelly. 1981. Feeding ecology of marine cormorants in southwestern North American. Condor 83:120-131.

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (Eds.). 1977. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume I. Ostrich to ducks. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 199-207).

Hennemann, W. W. 1983. Environmental influences on the energetics and behavior of Anhingas and Double-crested Cormorants. Physiological Zoology 56:201-216.

Hennemann, W. W. 1984. Spread-winged behavior of Double-crested and Flightless Cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and P. harrisi: wing drying or thermoregulation? Ibis 126:230-239.

Hennemann, W. W. 1988. Energetics and spread-winged behavior in Anhingas and Double-crested Cormorants: the risks of generalization. American Zoologist 28:845-851.

Mahoney, S. A. 1984. Plumage wettability of aquatic birds. Auk 101:181-185.

Orta, J. 1992. Family Phalacrocoracidae (cormorants). Pages 326-353 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Rohwer, S., C. E. Filardi, K. S. Bostwick, and A. T. Peterson. 2000. A critical evaluation of Kenyon’s Shag (Phalacrocorax [Strictocarbo] kenyoni). Auk 117:308-320

Siegel-Causey, D. 1991. Systematics and biogeography of north Pacific shags, with a description of a new species. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History University of Kansas. 140:1-17.

ANHINGA

Family Anhingidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Hennemann, W. W. 1982. Energetics and spread-winged behavior of Anhingas in Florida. Condor 84:91-96.

Hennemann, W. W. 1983. Environmental influences on the energetics and behavior of Anhingas and Double-crested Cormorants. Physiological Zoology 56:201-216.

Hennemann, W. W. 1988. Energetics and spread-winged behavior in Anhingas and Double-crested Cormorants: the risks of generalization. American Zoologist 28:845-851.

Mahoney, S. A. 1984. Plumage wettability of aquatic birds. Auk 101:181-185.

Orta, J. 1992. Family Anhingidae (darters). Pages 354-361 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

FRIGATEBIRDS

Family Fregatidae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Harrington, B., R. W. Schreiber, and G. E. Woolfenden. 1972. The distribution of male and female Magnificent Frigatebirds, Fregata magnificens, along the Gulf Coast of Florida. American Birds 26:927-931.

Orta, J. 1992. Family Fregatidae (frigataebirds). Pages 362-374 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

HERONS, EGRETS, AND BITTERNS

Family Ardeidae

Chapter author: William E. Davis, Jr.

Crosby, G. T. 1972. Spread of the Cattle Egret in the western hemisphere. Bird-Banding 43:205-212.

Evens, J., and G. W. Page. 1986. Predation on Black Rails during high tides in salt marshes. Condor 88:107-109.

Kushlan, J. A., and H. Hafner. (Eds). 2000. Heron conservation. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Hancock, J., and J. Kushlan. 1984. The herons handbook. Harper & Row, New York, NY. [Author’s note: A revised version of this book is under development.]

Martínez-vilalta, A., and A. Mortis. 1992. Family Ardeidae (herons). Pages 376-429 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Mock, D. W., H. Drummond, and C. H. Stinson. 1990. Avian siblicide. American Scientist 78:438-449.

Monroe, B. L., Jr., and M. R. Browning. 1992. A re-analysis of Butorides. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 112:81-85.

Sheldon, F. H. 1987. Phylogeny of herons estimated from DNA-DNA hybridization data. Auk 104:97-108.

Sheldon, F. H., and B. Slikas. 1997. Advances in ciconiiform systematics 1976-1996. Colonial Waterbirds 20:106-114.

Sprunt, A., IV, J. C. Ogden, and S. Winckler. (Eds). 1978. Wading birds. Research Report No. 7, National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

IBISES AND SPOONBILLS

Family Threskiornithidae

Chapter author: William J. Seng

Bildstein, K. L.1983. White ibis: wetland wanderer. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C.

Frederick, P. C., K. L. Bildstein, B. Fleury, and J. Ogden. 1996. Conservation of large, nomadic populations of White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) in the United States. Conservation Biology 10:203-216.

Henny, C. J. 1997. DDE still high in White-faced Ibis eggs from Carson Lake, Nevada. Colonial Waterbirds 20:478-484.

Matheu, E., and J. del Hoyo. 1992. Family Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills). Pages 472-506 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Weihs, D., and G. Katzir. 1994. Bill sweeping in the spoonbill, Platalea leucordia: evidence for a hydrodynamic function. Animal Behaviour 47:649-654.

Stork references coming soon

FLAMINGOS

Family Phoenicopteridae

Chapter author: William J. Seng

del Hoyo, J. 1992. Family Phoenicopteridae (flamingos). Pages 508-526 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Ostrich to ducks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Feduccia, A. 1976. Osteological evidence for shorebird affinities of the flamingo. Auk 93:587-601.

Feduccia, A. 1978. Presbyornis and the evolution of ducks and flamingos. American Scientist 66:298-304.

Hagey, L. R., C. D. Schteingart, H-T. Ton-Nu, S. S. Rossi, D. Odell, and A. F. Hofmann. 1990. b-phocacholic acid in bile; biochemical evidence that the flamingo is related to an ancient goose. Condor 92:593-597.

Pickering, S. P. C., and L. Duverge. 1992. The influence of visual stimuli provided by mirrors on the marching display of lesser flamingos, Phoeniconais minor. Animal Behaviour 43:1048-1050.

Zweers, G., F. de Jong, H. Berkhoudt, and J. C. Vanden Berge. 1995. Filter feeding in flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). Condor 97:297-324.
DUCKS, GEESE AND SWANS

Family Anatidae

Chapter author: Milton W. Weller

Austin, J. E., A. D. Afton, M. G. Anderson, R. G. Clark, C. M. Custer, J. S. Lawrence, J. B. Pollard, and J. K. Ringelman. 2000. Declining scaup populations: issues, hypotheses, and research needs. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28:254-263.

Baldassarre, G. A., and E. G. Bolen. 1994. Waterfowl ecology and management. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Batt, B. D. J., A. D. Afton, M. G. Anderson, C. D. Ankney, D. H. Johnson, J. A. Kadlec, and G. L. Krapu (Eds.). 1992. Ecology and management of breeding waterfowl. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Bellrose, F. C. 1980. Ducks, geese and swans of North America, 3rd Ed. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C.

Delacour, J. 1954-64. The waterfowl of the world, 4 vols. Country Life, London.

Hochbaum, H. A. 1944. The Canvasback on a prairie marsh. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1975. Waterfowl of North America. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.

Johnson, K. P., and K. P. Sorenson. 1999. Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (Genus: Anas): A comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk 116:792-805.

LeMaster, R. (Undated). The LeMaster Method; waterfowl identification. Scotch Game Call Co., Elba, NY.

Livezey, B. C. 1986. A phylogenetic analysis of recent Anseriform genera using morphological characters. Auk 103:737-754.

Madge, S., and H. Burn. 1988. Waterfowl, an identification guide to the ducks, geese and swans of the world. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

Nelson, C. H. 1993. The downy waterfowl of North America. Delta Station Press, Deerfield, IL.

Owen, M., and J. M. Black. 1990. Waterfowl ecology. Blackie and Son, Glasgow.

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 2000. Waterfowl population status, 2000. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

Weller, M. W. 1980. The island waterfowl. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

Weller, M. W. (Ed.) 1988. Waterfowl in winter. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Weller, M. W. 1999. Wetland birds; habitat resources and conservation implications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

NEW WORLD VULTURES

Family Cathartidae

Chapter author: Helen Snyder

Arad, Z., and M. H. Bernstein. 1988. Temperature regulation in Turkey Vultures. Condor 90:913-919.

Arad, Z., U. Midtgård, and M. H. Bernstein. 1989. Thermoregulation in Turkey Vultures: vascular anatomy, arteriovenous heat exchange, and behavior. Condor 91:505-514.

Buckley, N. J. 1996. Food finding and the influence of information, local enhacement, and communal roosting on foraging success of North American vultures. Auk 113:473-488.

Clark, R. G., and R. D. Ohmart. 1985. Spread-winged posture of Turkey Vultures: single or multiple function? Condor 87:350-355.

Ligon, D. J. 1967. Relationships of the cathartid vultures. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 651:1-26.

Hertel, F. 1994. Diversity in body size and feeding morphology within past and present vulture assemblages. Ecology 75:1074-1084.

Parker, P. G., T. A. Waite, and M. D. Decker. 1995. Kinship and association in communally roosting black vultures. Animal Behaviour 49:395-401.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New haven, CT.

Snyder, N., and H. Snyder. 1989. Biology and conservation of the California Condor. Current Ornithology 6:175-267.

Snyder, N., and H. Snyder. 2000. The California Condor. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Wink, M. 1995. Phylogeny of Old and New World Vultures (Aves: Accipitridae and Cathartidae) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 50:868-882.

HAWKS AND ALLIES

Family Accipitridae

Chapter author: Helen Snyder

Clarke, W. S., and R. C. Banks. 1992. The taxonomic status of the White-tailed Kite. Wilson Bulletin 104:571-579.

Griffiths, C. S. 1994. Monophyly of the Falconiformes based on syringeal morphology. Auk 111:787-805.

Mindell, D. P. 1983. Harlan’s Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis harlani): a valid subspecies. Auk 100:161-169.

Poole, A. F. 1994. Family Pandionidae (osprey). Pages 42-51 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 2. New World vultures to guineafowl (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Rowher, S., and D. R. Paulson. 1987. The avoidance-image hypothesis and color polymorphism in Buteo hawks. Ornis Scandinavica 18:285-290.

Snyder, N. F. R., and H. A. Snyder. 1969. A comparative study of mollusc predation of Limpkins, Everglade Kites and Boat-tailed Grackles. Living Bird 8:177-223.

Temeles, E. J. 1985. Sexual size dimorphism of bird-eating hawks: the effect of prey vulnerability. American Naturalist 125:485-499.

Thiollay, J. M. 1994. Family Accipitridae (hawks and eagles). Pages 52-205 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 2. New World vultures to guineafowl (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Willis, E. O. 1963. Is the Zone-tailed Hawk a mimic of the Turkey Vulture? Condor 65:313-317.
FALCONS AND CARACARAS

Family Falconidae

Chapter author: Helen Snyder

Cade, T. J., and D. M. Bird. 1990. Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, nesting in an urban environment: a review. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:209-218.

Cade, T. J., M. Martell, P. Redig, G. Septon, and H. Tordoff. 1996. Peregrine Falcons in urban North America. Pages 3-13 in Raptors in human landscapes: adaptations to built and cultivated environments (D. M. Bird, D. E. Varland, and J. J. Negro, Eds.). Academic Press, London, UK.

Cochran, W. W. 1986. Speed of flapping flight of Merlins and Peregrine Falcons. Condor 88: 397-398.

Griffiths, C. S. 1994. Monophyly of the Falconiformes based on syringeal morphology. Auk 111:787-805.

White, c. m., P. D. olsen, and l. f. kiff. 1994. Family Falconidae (falcons and caracaras). Pages 216-275 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 2. New World vultures to guineafowl (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

CHACHALACAS AND ALLIES

Family Cracidae

Chapter author: David J. Delehanty

Christensen, Z. D., D. B. Pence, and G. Scott. 1978. Notes on food habits of the plain chachalaca from the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Wilson Bulletin 90:647-648.

Leopold, A. S. 1959. Wildlife of Mexico: The game birds and mammals. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Marion, W. R. 1974. Status of the plain chachalaca in south Texas. Wilson Bulletin 86:200-205.

Marion, W. R. and R. J. Fleetwood 1978. Nesting ecology of the plain chachalaca in south Texas. Wilson Bulletin 90:386-395.

GROUSE, TURKEYS AND ALLIES

Family Phasianidae

Chapter author: David J. Delehanty

Atwater, S., and J. Schnell (Eds.). 1989. Ruffed Grouse. The Wildlife Series. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA.

Baines, D. 1996. The implications of grazing and predator management on the habitats and breeding success of black grouse Tetrao tetrax. Journal of Applied Ecology 33:54-62.

Beani, L., and F. Dessi-Fulgheri. 1995. Mate choice in the grey partridge, Perdix perdix: the role of physical and behavioural male traits. Animal Behavior 49:347-356.

Beebe, W. 1918. A monograph of the pheasants. Witherby, London.

Carroll, J. P. 1993. Gray Partridge (Perdix perdix). In The birds of North America, No. 58 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Cattadori, I. M., P. J. Hudson, et al. 1999. Synchrony, scale and temporal dynamics of rock partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis) populations in the Dolomites. Journal of Animal Ecology 68:540-549.

Christensen, G. C. 1970. The chukar partridge. Nevada Department of Wildlife Biological Bulletin 4.

Delacour, J. 1951. The pheasants of the World. Country Life, London.

Draycott, R. A. H., A. N. Hoodless, et al. 1998. Effects of spring feeding on body condition of captive-reared ring-necked pheasants in Great Britain. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:557-563.

Drovetski, S. V. 1996. Influence of the trailing-edge notch on flight performance of galliforms. Auk 113:802-810.

Goodwin, D. 1953. Observations on the voice and behavior of the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa. Ibis 95:581-614.

Goodwin, D. 1958. Further notes on pairing and submissive behavior of the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa. Ibis 100:581-614.

Grahn, M., G. Goransson, et al. 1993. Territory acquisition and mating success in pheasants, Phasianus colchicus: an experiment. Animal Behavior 46:721-730.

Hadjisterkotis, E. 1999. The survival of captive bred chukar Alectoris chukar cypriotes, released for restocking in Cyprus. Zeitschrift fuer Jagdwissenschaft 45:238-249.

Healy, W. M. 1992. Behavior. Pages 46-65 in The Wild Turkey: biology and management (J. G. Dickson, Ed.). Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA.

Herrera, A., A. Arino, et al. 2000. Red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) as bioindicators for persistent chlorinated chemicals in Spain. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 38:114-120.

Hupp, J. W., and C. E. Braun. 1991. Geographic variation among Sage Grouse in Colorado. Wilson Bulletin 103:255-261.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1973. The grouse and quails of North America. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1988. The quails, partridges and francolins of the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1983. The grouse of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.

Martin, B. P. 1990. The glorious grouse. David and Charles, London.

Mateos, C., and J. Carranza. 1997. The role of bright plumage in male-male interactions in the ring-necked pheasant. Animal Behaviour 54:1205-1214.

McGowan, P. J. K., S. D. Dowell, J. P. Carroll, and N. J. Aebischer. 1995. Status survey and conservation action plan 1995-1999. Partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks, and guineafowl. IUCN, Gland.

Niewoonder, J. A., H. H. Prince, et al. 1998. Survival and reproduction of female Sichuan, ring-necked pheasant, and F1 hybrid pheasants. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:933-938.

Pelham, P. H., and J. G. Dickson. 1992. Physical characteristics. Pages 32-45 in The Wild Turkey: biology and management (J. G. Dickson, Ed.). Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA.

Potts, G. R. 1986. The Partridge: pesticides, predation and conservation. Collins, London.

Stokes, A. W. 1961. Voice and social behavior of the chukar partridge. Condor 63:111-127.

Thirgood, S. T., S. Redpath, et al. 2000. Raptors and red grouse: conservation conflicts and management solutions. Conservation Biology 14:95-104.

Toepfer, J. E., R. L. Eng, et al. 1990. Translocating prairie grouse: what have we learned? Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 55:569-579.

Urban, E. K., C. H. Fry, and S. Keith (Eds.) 1986. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.

Watson, A., and R. Moss. 1979. Population cycles in the Tetraonidae. Ornis Fennica 56:87-109.

Wechsler, C. 1986. The pheasants in Minnesota. Minnesota Deptartment of Natural Resources, Section of Wildlife, St. Paul, MN.

Westmeier, R. L., J. E. Buhnerkempe, et al. 1998. Parasitism of greater prairie-chicken nests by ring-necked pheasants. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:854-863.

Young, J. R., J. W. Hupp, J. W. Bradbury, and C. E. Braun. 1994. Phenotypic divergence of secondary sexual traits among sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, populations. Animal Behaviour 47:1353-1362.

Young, J. R., C. E. Braun, S. J. Oyler-McCance, T. W. Quinn, and J. W. Hupp. 2000. A new species of Sage Grouse (Phasianidae: Centrocercus) from southwestern Colorado, USA. Wilson Bulletin 112:445–453.

NEW WORLD QUAIL
Family Odontophoridae
Chapter author: David J. Delehanty

BRENNAN, L. A. 1994. Broad-scale population declines in four species of North American quail: an examination of possible causes. Pages 44-50 in: Sustainable ecological systems: implementing an ecological approach to land management. (W. W. Covington and L. F. DeBano, Eds.). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, USDA, Forest Service. Gen. Tech. Report RM-247.USDA: 44-50.

BRENNAN, L. A., W. M. BLOCK, AND R. J. GUTIÉRREZ. 1987. Habitat use by Mountain Quail in northern California. Condor 89:66-74.

BRIDGES, A. W., M. J. PETERSON, ET AL. 2001. Differential influence of weather on regional quail abundance in Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 65:10-18.

BURGER, L. W., D. A. MILLER, ET AL. 1999. Economic impact of northern bobwhite hunting in the southeastern United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:1010-1018.

CAIN, J. R., R. J. LEIN, AND S. L. BEASON. 1987. Phytoestrogen effects on reproductive performance of scaled quail. Journal of Wildlife Management 51:198-201.

CAMPBELL, H. 1960. An evaluation of gallinaceous guzzlers for quail in New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Management 24:21-26.

CARVER, A. V., L. W. BURGER, JR., ET AL. 1999. Passive integrated transponders and patatgial tag markers for northern bobwhite chicks. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:162-166.

CURTIS, P. D., B. S. MUELLER, P. D. DOERR, C. F. ROBINETTE, AND T. DEVOS. 1993. Potential polygamous breeding behavior in Northern Bobwhite. Pages 55-63 in Quail III: National Quail Symposium (K. E. Church and T. V. Dailey, Eds.). Kansas Dept. of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, KA.

DELEHANTY, D. J. 1995. Incubation and brood rearing by a wild male mountain quail. Western Birds 26:46-48.

DELEHANTY, D. J., R. A. TYBIE, M. J. DITSWORTH, G. A. HOELZER, L. W. ORING, AND J. L. LONGMIRE. 1995. Genetic and morphological methods for gender identification of mountain quail. Journal of Wildlife Management 59:785-789.

DEVOS, T. AND B. S. MUELLER. 1993. Reproductive ecology of northern bobwhite in north Florida. Pages 83-90 in Quail III: National Quail Symposium (K. E. Church and T. V. Dailey, Eds.).Kansas Dept. of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, KA.

FLETCHER, R. A. 1971. Effects of vitamin A deficiency on the pituitary-gonad axis of the California quail, Lophortyx californicus. Journal of Experimental Zoology 176:25:34.

GUTHERY, F. S., C. L. LAND, ET AL. 2001. Heat loads on reproducing bobwhites in the semiarid subtropics. Journal of Wildlife Management 65:111-117.

GUTHREY, F. S. 1999. The role of free water in bobwhite management. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:538-542.

GUTHRIE, F. S. AND W. P. KUVLESKY, JR. 1998. The effect of multiple-brooding on age ratios of quail. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:540-549.

GUTIÉRREZ, R. J. 1975. Literature review and bibliography of the mountain quail (Oreotyx pictus). USDA Forest Service California Region, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Albany, CA.

GUTIÉRREZ, R. J. 1980. Comparative ecology of the Mountain and California Quail in the Carmel Valley, California. Living Bird 18:71-93.

GUTIÉRREZ, R. J. 1993. Taxonomy and biogeography of New World quail. In Quail III: National Quail Symposium (K. E. Church and T. V. Dailey, Eds.). Kansas Dept. of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, KA.

GUTIÉRREZ, R. J., R. M. ZINK, AND S. Y. YANG. 1983. Genic variation, systematic, and biogeographic relationships of some galliform birds. Auk 100:33-47.

HEEKIN, P. 1999. Mountain Quail: Idaho Native. Sage Notes 21:2-5.

HEFFELFINGER, J. R., F. S. GUTHREY, ET AL. 1999. Influence of precipitation timing and summer temperatures on reproduction of Gambel’s quail. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:154-161.

HOWELL, S. N. G. AND S. WEBB. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

HUNGERFORD, C. R. 1964. Vitamin A and productivity in Gambel’s quail. Journal of Wildlife Management 28:141-147.

JOHNSGARD, P. A. 1973. The grouse and quails of North America. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.

JOHNSGARD, P. A. 1988. The quails, partridges, and francolins of the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

LEOPOLD, A. S. 1977. The California Quail. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

LIFJELD, J. T., K. ANTHONISEN, ET AL. 1998. Studying the influence of paternity on paternal effort: a comment on Kempenaers & Sheldon. Animal Behaviour 55:235-238.

MCGOWAN, P. J. K., S. D. DOWELL, J. P. CARROLL, AND N. J. AEBISCHER. 1995. Status survey and conservation action plan 1995-1999. Partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks, and guineafowl. IUCN, Gland.

MCLEAN, D. D. 1930. The quail of California. California State Printing Office, Sacramento, CA.

SAIWANA, L., J. L. HOLECHEK, ET AL. 1998. Scaled quail use of different seral stages in the Chihuahuan Desert. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:550-556.

SARRAZIN, F. AND S. LEGENDRE. 2000. Demographic approaches to releasing adults versus young in reintroductions. Conservation Biology 14:488-500.

SCHEMNITZ, S. D. 1961. Ecology of the scaled quail in the Oklahoma panhandle. Wildlife Monographs 8:1-47.

STODDARD, H. L. 1950. The Bobwhite Quail. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, NY.

STOKES, A. W. AND H. W. WILLIAMS. 1968. Antiphonal calling in quail. Auk 85:83-89.

SUCHY, W. J. AND R. J. MUNKEL. 1993. Breeding strategies of the northern bobwhite in marginal habitat. Pages 69-73 in Quail III: National Quail Symposium (K. E. Church and T. V. Dailey, Eds.). Kansas Dept. of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt.

SUMNER, E. L., JR. 1935. A life history study of the California quail, with recommendations for conservation and management. California Fish and Game 21:167-256 and 277-342.

VAN ROSSEM, A. J. 1937. A review of the races of mountain quail. Condor 39:20-24.

VOGEL, C. A. AND K. P. REESE. 1995. Habitat conservation Assessment for Mountain Quail (Oreortyx pictus). Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID.

WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE. 1993. Distribution status of the mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) in Washington. Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

YOCUM, C. F. AND S. W. HARRIS. 1953. Food habits of mountain quail (Orertyx pictus) in eastern Washington. Journal of Wildlife Management 17:204-207.

ZINK, R. M., AND R. C. BLACKWELL. 1998. Molecular systematics of the scaled quail complex (genus Callipepla). Auk 115:394-403.

RAILS, GALLINULES, AND COOTS

Family Rallidae

Chapter author: George L. Armistead

Avise, J. C., and R. M. Zink. 1988. Molecular genetic divergence between avian sibling species: King and Clapper rails, Long-billed and Short-billed dowitchers, Boat-tailed and Great-tailed grackles, and Tufted and Black-crested titmice. Auk 105:516-528.

Evens, J., G. W. Page, S. A. Laymon, and R. W. Stallcup. 1991. Distribution, relative abundance and status of the California Black Rail in western North America. Condor 93:952-966.

Lyon, B. E., J. M. Eadie, and L. D. Hamilton. 1994. Parental choice selects for ornamental plumage in American coot chicks. Nature 371:240-243.

Remsen, J. V., Jr., and T. A. Parker, III. 1990. Seasonal distribution of the Azure Gallinule (Porphyrula flavirostris), with comments on vagrancy in rails and gallinules. Wilson Bulletin 102:380-399. [Ed. note: The New York Azure Gallinule has been reevaluated since this paper and is now thought to have escaped from captivity.]

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Steadman, D. W. 1995. Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific island birds: biodiversity meets zooarchaeology. Science 267:1123-1131.

Taylor, P. B.. 1996. Family Rallidae (rails, gallinules and coots). Pages 108-209 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Taylor, P. B., B. Taylor, B, Van Perlo. 1998. Rails: A guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

LIMPKIN

Family Aramidae

Chapter author: George L. Armistead

Bryan, D. C. 1996. Family Aramidae (limpkin). Pages 90-95 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Snyder, N. F. R., and H. A. Snyder. 1969. A comparative study of mollusc predation of Limpkins, Everglade Kites and Boat-tailed Grackles. Living Bird 8:177-223.
CRANES

Family Gruidae

Chapter author: William J. Seng

Archibald, G. W., and C. D. Meine. 1996. Family Gruidae (cranes). Pages 60-89 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Cannon, J. 1996. Whooping crane recovery: a case study in public and private cooperation in the conservation of endangered species. Conservation Biology 10:813-821.

Lewis, J. C. 1995. Whooping crane (Grus americana). in The birds of North America, No. 153. (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Tacha, T. C., S. A. Nesbitt, and P.A. Vohs. 1992. Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis). in The birds of North America, No. 31. (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

THICK-KNEES

Family Burhinidae

Author: David Allen Sibley

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (Eds.). 1983. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume III. Waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 68-84).

Hume, R. A. 1996. Family Burhinidae (thick-knees). Pages 348-363 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

PLOVERS AND LAPWINGS

Family Charadriidae

Chapter author: Wayne R. Peterson

Byrkjedal, I., and D. Thompson. 1998. Tundra plovers: The Eurasian, Pacific and American Golden Plovers and Grey Plover. T. & A. D. Poyser Ltd., London.

Connors, P. G., B. J. McCaffery, and J. L. Maron. 1993. Speciation in golden plovers, Pluvialis dominica and P. fulva: evidence from the breeding grounds. Auk 110:9-20.

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (Eds.). 1983. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume III. Waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 113-266).

Hayman, P., J. Marchant, and T. Prater. 1986. Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Croom Helm, London.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, snipes, and sandpipers of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NB.

Paulson, D. R. 1993. Shorebirds of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Rosair, D. and D. Cottridge. 1995. Photographic guide to the shorebirds of the world. Facts on File, Inc., New York, NY.

OYSTERCATCHERS

Family Haematopodidae

Chapter author: Wayne R. Peterson

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (Eds.). 1983. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume III. Waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 16-35).

Goss-Custard, J. D. (Ed.) 1996. The oystercatcher: from individuals to populations. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [Ed. note: this book focuses on the biology of Eurasian Oystercatchers, but much is relevant to North American species]

Hayman, P., J. Marchant, and T. Prater. 1986. Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Croom Helm, London.

Heppleston, P. B. 1973. The distribution and taxonomy of oystercatchers. Notornis 20:102-112.

Hockey, P. A. R. 1996. Haematopus ostralegus in perspective: comparisons with other oystercatchers. Pages 251-285 in The oystercatcher: from individuals to populations (J. D. Goss-Custard, Ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hockey, P. A. R. 1996. Family Haematopodidae (oystercatchers). Pages 308-325 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, snipes, and sandpipers of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NB.

Paulson, D. R. 1993. Shorebirds of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Rosair, D. and D. Cottridge. 1995. Photographic guide to the shorebirds of the world. Facts on File, Inc., New York, NY.

STILTS AND AVOCETS

Family Recurvirostridae

Chapter author: Wayne R. Peterson

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (Eds.). 1983. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume III. Waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 37-62).

Hamilton, R. B. 1975. Comparative behavior of the American Avocet and the Black-necked Stilt (Recurvirostridae). Ornithological Monographs 17.

Hayman, P., J. Marchant, and T. Prater. 1986. Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Croom Helm, London.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, snipes, and sandpipers of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NB.

Paulson, D. R. 1993. Shorebirds of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Pierce, R. J. 1996. Family Recurvirostridae (stilts and avocets). Pages 332-347 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Rosair, D. and D. Cottridge. 1995. Photographic guide to the shorebirds of the world. Facts on File, Inc., New York, NY.

Sordahl, T. A. 1988. The American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) as a paradigm for adult automimicry. Evolutionary Ecology 2:189-196.

JACANAS

Family Jacanidae

Chapter authors: David Allen Sibley and Chris Elphick

Jenni, D. A. 1996. Family Jacanidae (Jacanas). Pages 276-291 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Jenni, D. A. 2000. Northern Jacana (Jacana spinosa) No. 467. in The birds of North America (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Whittingham, L. A., F. H. Sheldon, and S. T. Emlen. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of jacanas and its implications for morphological and biogeographic evolution. Auk 117:22-32.

SANDPIPERS, PHALAROPES, AND ALLIES

Scolopacidae

Chapter authors: Nils and Sarah Warnock

Alerstam, T. 1990. Bird migration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Avise, J. C., and R. M. Zink. 1988. Molecular genetic divergence between avian sibling species: King and Clapper rails, Long-billed and Short-billed dowitchers, Boat-tailed and Great-tailed grackles, and Tufted and Black-crested titmice. Auk 105:516-528.

Bent, A. C. 1927. Life histories of North American shore birds. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum, Bulletin 142. (reprinted by Dover)

Burton, P. J. K. 1974. Feeding and the feeding apparatus in waders: a study of anatomy and adaptations in the Charadrii. British Natural History Museum, London.

Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall. 1997. The birds of British Columbia, Vol. 2. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, BC.

Emlen, S. T., and L. W. Oring. 1977. Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215-223.

Grant, G. S. 1982. Avian incubation: egg temperature, nest humidity, and behavioral thermoregulation in a hot environment. Ornithological Monograph 30.

Jehl, J. R., Jr. 1997. Fat loads and flightlessness in Wilson’s Phalaropes. Condor 99:538-543.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers, and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NB.

Marks, J. A. 1993. Molt of the Bristle-thighed Curlews in the northwestern Hawaiian islands. Auk 110:573-587.

McNeil, R., and J. Burton. 1977. Southbound migration of shorebirds from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Wilson Bulletin 89:167-171.

Obst, B. S., W. M. Hamner, P. P. Hamner, E. Wolanski, M. Rubega, and B. Littlehales. 1996. Kinematics of phalarope feeding. Nature 384:121.

Oring, L. W., and D. B. Lank. 1984. Breeding area fidelity, natal philopatry, and the social systems of sandpipers. Pages 125-147 in Behavior of marine animals. Vol. 5. Shorebirds: breeding behavior and populations (J. Burger and B.L. Olla, Eds.). Plenum Press, New York, NY.

Page, G. W., and R. E. Gill Jr. 1994. Shorebirds in western North America: late 1800s to late 1900s. Studies in Avian Biology 15:147-160.

Page, G.W., and D. F. Whitacre. 1975. Raptor predation on wintering shorebirds. Condor 77:73-83.

Paulson, D. 1993. Shorebirds of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Piersma, T. 1996. Family Scolopacidae. Pages 444-487 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Piersma, T., A. Koolhaas, and A. Dekinga. 1993. Interactions between stomach structure and diet choice in shorebirds. Auk 110:552-564.

Piersma, T., and R. E. Gill, Jr. 1998. Guts don’t fly: small digestive organs in obese Bar-tailed Godwits. Auk 115:196-203.

Prater, A. J., J. H. Marchant, and J. Vuorinen. 1987. Guide to the identification and ageing of Holarctic waders. British Trust for Ornithology Guide 17.

Rubega, M. A. 1997. Surface tension prey transport in shorebirds: how widespread is it? Ibis 139: 488-493.

Rubega, M. A., and B. S. Obst. 1993. Surface-tension feeding in phalaropes: discovery of a novel feeding mechanism. Auk 110:169-178 + frontispiece.

Townshend, D. J. 1981. The importance of field feeding to the survival of wintering male and female Curlews Numenius arquata on the Tees Estuary. Pages 261-273 in Feeding and survival strategies of estuarine organisms (N.V. Jones and W. J. Wolff, Eds.). Plenum Press, New York, NY.

Senner, S. E., and M. A. Howe. 1984. Conservation of Neartic shorebirds. Pages 379-421 in Behavior of marine animals. Vol. 5. Shorebirds: breeding behavior and populations (J. Burger and B. L. Olla, Eds.),. Plenum Press, New York, NY.

Sibley, C. G., and B. L. Monroe, Jr. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Skagen, S. K., and H. D. Oman. 1996. Dietary flexibility of shorebirds in the Western Hemisphere. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110:419-444.

Warnock, N., and M. A. Bishop. 1998. Spring stopover ecology of migrant Western Sandpipers. Condor 100:456-467.
COURSERS AND PRATINCOLES

Family Glareolidae

Chapter author: David Allen Sibley

Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (Eds.). 1983. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume III. Waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 84-112).

Maclean, G. L. 1996. Family Glareolidae (coursers and pratincoles). Pages 364-383 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to auks (del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Paulson, D. 1993. Shorebirds of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

GULLS, TERNS AND ALLIES

Family Laridae

Chapter authors: Edward S. Brinkley and Alec Humann

Alerstam, T. 1990. Bird migration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (pp. 135-144)

Andersson, M. 1999. Hybridization and skua phylogeny. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 266:1579-1585.

Berthold, P. 1993. Bird migration: a general survey. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (p. 76)

Bell, D. A. 1996. Genetic differentation, geographic variation and hybridization in gulls of the Larus glaucescens-occidentalis complex. Condor 98:527-546.

Bell, D. A. 1997. Hybridization and reproductive performance in gulls of the Larus glaucescens-occidentalis complex. Condor 99:585-594.

Braun, M. J., and R. T. Brumfield. 1998. Enigmatic phylogeny of skuas: An alternative hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 265:995-999.

Conover, M. R., and G. L. Hunt, Jr. 1984. Experimental evidence that female-female pairs in gulls results from a shortage of breeding females. Condor 86:472-476.

Cohen, B. L., A. J. Baker, K. Blechschmidt, and 13 others. 1997. Enigmatic phylogeny of skuas (Aves: Stercorariidae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 264:181-190.

Fry, D. M., and C. K. Toone. 1981. DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos. Science 213:922-924.

Furness, R. W. 1987. Kleptoparasitism in seabirds. Pages 77-100 in Seabirds: Feeding Ecology and Role in Marine Ecosystems (J. P. Croxall, Ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Götmark, F. 1987. White underparts in gulls function as hunting camouflage. Animal Behaviour 35:1786-1792.

Kjellén, N. 1997. Skuas on the Eurasin tundra; relative occurrence of species, ages and color phases. Ibis 139:282-288.

Pierotti, R. 1987. Isolating mechanisms in seabirds. Evolution 41: 559-570.

Pierotti, R., and C. A. Annett. 1990. Diet and reproductive output in seabirds. BioScience 40:568-574.

Pierotti, R., and C. A. Annett. 1991. Diet choice in the Herring Gull: constraints imposed by reproductive and ecological factors. Ecology 72:319-328.

Snell, R. R. 1989. Status of Larus gulls at Home bay, Baffin Island. Colonial Waterbirds 12:12-23.

Snell, R. R. 1991. Interspecific allozyme differentiation among North Atlantic white-headed larid gulls. Auk 108:319-328.

Snell, R. R. 1991. Variably plumaged Icelandic Herring Gulls reflect founders not hybrids. Auk 108:329-341.

Zusi, R. L. 1981. On the split pupil of the Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger). Journal of Field Ornithology 52:338-340.

AUKS

Family Alcidae

Chapter author: Ian L. Jones

Ainley, D. G., and R. J. Boekelheide. 1990. Seabirds of the Farallon Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Bailey, E. P. 1993. Introduction of foxes to Alaskan Islands – history, effects on avifauna and eradication. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D. C.

Bédard, J. 1969. Adaptive radiation in Alcidae. Ibis 111:189-198.

Birkhead, T. 1993. Great Auk islands. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Gaston, A. J. 1992. The Ancient Murrelet: A natural history in the Queen Charlotte Islands. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Gaston, A. J. and I. L. Jones. 1998. Bird families of the world: The auks (Alcidae). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Harris, M. P. 1984. The Puffin. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Jones, I. L., and F. M. Hunter. 1993. Mutual sexual selection in a monogamous seabird. Nature 362:238-239.

Jones, I. L., and F. M. Hunter. 1998. Heterospecific mating preferences for a feather ornament in Least Auklets. Behavioral Ecology 9:189-192.

Jones, I. L., and F. M. Hunter. 1999. Experimental evidence for mutual inter- and intra-sexual selection favouring a Crested Auklet ornament. Animal Behavior 57:521-528.

Moum, T., S. Johansen, K. E. Erikstad, and J. F. Piatt. 1994. Phylogeny and evolution of the auks (subfamily Alcinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91:7912-7916.

Nettleship, D. N., and T. R. Birkhead. 1985. The Atlantic Alcidae: The evolution, distribution and biology of the auks inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent water areas. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Strauch, J. G., Jr. 1985. The phylogeny of the Alcidae. Auk 102:520-539.

PIGEONS AND DOVES

Family Columbidae

Chapter authors: Jeffrey V. Wells and Allison Childs Wells
Gibbs, D., and E. Barnes. 2000. Pigeons and doves: A guide to pigeons and doves of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Skutch, A. F. 1991. Life of the pigeon. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Smith, P. W. 1987. The Eurasian Collared-Dove arrives in the Americas. American Birds 41:1371-1379.
PARROTS AND ALLIES

Family Psittacidae

Chapter authors: Kimball L. Garrett and John B. Dunning, Jr.

Beissinger, S. R., and N. F. Snyder. 1992. New World parrots in crisis. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C. and London.

Bull, J. 1973. Exotic birds in the New York area. Wilson Bulletin 85:501-505.

Collar, N. J. 1996. Family Psittacidae (parrots). Pages 280-477 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to cuckoos (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Forshaw, J. M., and W. T. Cooper. 1989. Parrots of the world, 3rd Edn. Lansdowne Editions, Melbourne.

Garrett, K. L. 1997. Population status and distribution of naturalized parrots in southern California. Western Birds 28:181-195.

Juniper, T., and M. Parr. 1998. Parrots: A guide to parrots of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Pasquier, R. F. (Ed.) 1981. Conservation of New World parrots. ICBP Technical Publication No. 1, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C. and London.

Snyder, N., P. McGowan, J. Gilardi, and A. Grajal. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. IUCN, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. 1994. The birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

CUCKOOS, ROADRUNNERS, AND ALLIES

Family Cuculidae

Chapter author: Stephen A. Laymon

Bowen, B. S., R. R. Koford, and S. L. Vehrencamp. 1989. Dispersal in the communally breeding Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Condor 91:52-64.

Davies, N. B. 2000. Cuckoos, cowbirds and other cheats. T. & A. D. Poyser Ltd., London.

Folse, L. J. Jr., and K. A. Arnold. 1978. Population ecology of Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) in south Texas. Southwest Naturalist 23:1-28.

Franzreb, K. E., and S. A. Laymon. 1993. A reassessment of the taxonomic status of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Western Birds 24:17-28.

Gaines, D., and S. A. Laymon. 1984. Decline, status, and preservation of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo in California. Western Birds 15:49-80.

Hamilton, W. J., III, and M. E. Hamilton. 1965. Breeding characteristics of Yellow-billed Cuckoos in Arizona. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 32:405-432.

Hanna, W. C. 1937. California Cuckoo in the San Bernardino Valley, California. Condor 39:57-59.

Koford, R. R., B. S. Bowen, and S. L. Vehrencamp. 1990. Groove-billed Anis: joint nesting in a tropical cuckoo. Pp. 335-355 in Cooperative breeding in birds: long term studies of ecology and behavior (P. Stacey and W. Koenig, Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Laymon, S. A. and M. D. Halterman. 1987. Can the western subspecies of Yellow-billed Cuckoo be saved from extinction? Western Birds 18:19-25.

Meinzer, W. 1993. The Roadrunner. Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock, TX.

Nolan, V., Jr., and C. F. Thompson. 1975. The occurrence and significance of anomalous reproductive activities in two North American nonparasitic cuckoos Coccyzus spp. Ibis 117:496-503.

Ohmart, R. D. 1973. Observations on the breeding adaptations of the Roadrunner. Condor 75:140-149.

Potter, E. F. 1980. Notes on nesting Yellow-billed Cuckoos. Journal of Field Ornithology. 51:17-29.

Preble, N. A. 1957. Nesting habits of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo. American Midland Naturalist 57:474-482.

Rand, A. L. 1941. Courtship of the Roadrunner. Auk 58:57-59.

Sealy, S. G. 1978. Possible influence of food on egg-laying and clutch size in the Black-billed Cuckoo. Condor 80:103-104.

Skutch, A. F. 1959. Life-history of the Groove-billed Ani. Auk 76:281-317.

Skutch, A.F. 1966. Life history notes on three tropical American cuckoos. Wilson Bulletin 78:139-165.

Spencer, O.R. 1943. Nesting habits of the Black-billed Cuckoo. Wilson Bulletin 55: 11-22.

Vehrencamp, S.L., B.S. Bowen, and R.R. Koford. 1986. Breeding roles and pairing patterns within communal groups of Groove-billed Anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Animal Behaviour 4:347-366

Wyllie, I. 1981. The Cuckoo. B. T. Batsford, Ltd., London.

BARN OWLS

Tytonidae

Chapter author: Robert A. Behrstock

Bunn, D. S., A. B. Warburton, and R. D. S. Wilson. 1982. The Barn Owl. Harrell Books.

Knudsen, E. I. 1981. The hearing of the Barn Owl. Scientific American 245:112-125.

Konig, C., F. Weick, and J.-H. Becking. 1999. Owls: A guide to the owls of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Konishi, M. 1973. How the owl tracks its prey. American Scientist 61:414-424.

Martin, G. 1990. Birds at night. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Thorpe, W. H., and D. R. Griffin. 1962. The lack of ultrasonic components in the flight noise of owls compared with other birds. Ibis 104:256-257.

Taylor, I. 1994. Barn Owls: Predator-prey relationships and conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

TYPICAL OWLS

Strigidae

Chapter author: Robert A. Behrstock

Barrowclough, G. F., and R. J. Gutiérrez. 1990. Genetic variation and differentiation in the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis). Auk 107:737-744.

Gehlbach, F. R., and R. S. Baldridge. 1987. Live blind snakes (Leptotyphlops dulcis) in eastern screech owl (Otus asio) nests: a novel commensalism. Oecologia 71:560-563.

Graham, R. R. 1934. The silent flight of owls. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society 38:837-843.

Heidrich, P., C. König, and M. Wink. 1995. Bioakustik, Taxonomie und molekulare Systematik amerikanischer Sperlingskäuze (Strigidae: Glaucidium spp.). Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk., Ser. A, 534:1-47. [Ed. note: This paper addresses taxonomic relationships of pygmy-owls; see also AOU Checklist 1998:259.]

Johnsgard, P. A. 1997. North American owls: biology and natural history. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C.

Kerlinger, P., M. R. Lein, and B. J. Sevick. 1985. Distribution and population fluctuations of wintering Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca) in North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:1829-1834.

Knudsen, E. I. 1981. The hearing of the Barn Owl. Scientific American 245:112-125.

Konig, C., F. Weick, and J.-H. Becking. 1999. Owls: A guide to the owls of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Konishi, M. 1973. How the owl tracks its prey. American Scientist 61:414-424.

Marshall, J. T. 1967. Parallel variation in North and Middle American screech-owls. Monographs of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, No. 1.

Martin, G. 1990. Birds at night. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Noon, B. R., and K. S. McKelvey. 1996. Management of the spotted owl: a case history in conservation biology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27:135-162.

Thorpe, W. H., and D. R. Griffin. 1962. The lack of ultrasonic components in the flight noise of owls compared with other birds. Ibis 104:256-257.
NIGHTHAWKS AND NIGHTJARS

Caprimulgidae

Chapter author: Robert A. Behrstock

Brigham, R. M. 1992. Daily torpor in a free-ranging goatsucker, the common poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii). Physiological Zoology 65:457-472.

Cleere, N., and D. Nurney. 1998. Nightjars: A guide to the nightjars, nighthawks, and their relatives. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Firman, M. C., R. M. Brigham, and R. M. R. Barclay. 1993. Do free-ranging Common Nighthawks enter torpor? Condor 95:157-162.

Hickey, M. B. C. 1993. Thermoregulation in free-ranging Whip-poor-wills. Condor 95:744-747.

Martin, G. 1990. Birds at night. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Mengel, R. M. 1976. Rapid tail molt and temporarily impaired flight in the Chuck-will’s-widow. Wilson Bulletin 88:351-353.

Mills, A.M. 1986. The influence of moonlight on the behavior of goatsuckers (Caprimulgidae). Auk 103:370-378.

Rowher, S. A. 1971. Molt and the annual cycle of the Chuck-will’s-widow, Caprimulgus carolinensis. Auk 88:485-519.

Rowher, S., and J. Butler. 1977. Ground foraging and rapid molt in the Chuck-will’s-widow. Wilson Bulletin 89:165-166.

Sutton, G. M. The plumages and molts of the young eastern Whippoorwill. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.

SWIFTS

Family Apodidae

Chapter author: Charles T. Collins

Bull, E. L. and R. C. Beckwith. 1993. Diet and foraging behavior of Vaux’s Swifts in northeastern Oregon. Condor 96:1016-1023.

Chantler, P. 2000. A guide to swifts and treeswifts of the world. 2nd Ed. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Collins, C. T. 1968. The comparative biology of two species of swifts in Trinidad West Indies. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 11:257-320.

Collins, C. T. 1983. A reinterpretation of pamprodactyly in swifts; a convergent grasping mechanism in vertebrates. Auk 100:735-737.

Collins, C. T. 1998. Food delivery and chick provisioning in cypseloidine swifts. Bulletin of the British Ornithologist’ Club 118:108-112.

Collins, C. T. 2000. Subfamilies of the swifts (Apodiformes, Apodidae): Schoutedenapus revisited. Durban Mus. Novitates 25:36-39.

Collins, C. T. and R. K. Brooke. 1976. A review of the swifts of the genus Hirundapus (Aves: Apodidae). Los Angeles County Museum Contrib. Sci. 282:1-22.

Collins, C. T. and R. Murphy. 1993. Echolocation acuity of the Palawan Swiftlet (Aerodramus palawanensis). Avocetta 17:157-162.

Fischer, R. B. 1958. The breeding biology of the Chimney Swift, Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus). New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin 368:1-139.

Lack, D. 1956. Swifts in a Tower. Methuen and Co., London. 239 pp.

Lack, D. and E. Lack. 1951. The breeding biology of the swift, Apus apus. Ibis 93:501-546.

Lee, P. L., Clayton, D. H., Griffiths, R. and R. D. M. Paige. 1996. Does behavior reflect phylogeny in swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)? A test using cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 93:7091-7096.

Marin, M. and F. G. Stiles. 1992. On the biology of five species of swifts (Aves, Apodidae, Cypseloidinae) in Costa Rica. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 4:287-351.

Medway, Lord. 1967. The swiftlets (Collocalia) of Niah Cave, Sarawak. Part 1. Breeding biology. Ibis 104:45-66.

Medway, Lord. 1967. The swiftlets (Collocalia) of Niah Cave, Sarawak. Part 2. Ecology and regulation of breeding. Ibis 104:228-245.

Medway, Lord and J. D. Pye. 1977. Echolocation and the systematics of swiftlets. Pages 225-238 in Evolutionary Ecology (B. Stonehouse and C. M. Perrins, Eds.) MacMillan, London.

Tarburton, M. K. 1986. Breeding biology of the White-rumped Swiftlet in Fiji. Emu 86:214-227.
HUMMINGBIRDS

Family Trochilidae

Chapter authors: Robert and Martha Sargent

Ewald, P. W., and W. A. Williams. 1982. Function of the bill and tongue in nectar uptake by hummingbirds. Auk 99:573-576.

Greenewalt, C. H. 1960. Hummingbirds. Doubleday and Co, Inc. Garden City, NY.

Hainsworth, F. R. 1973. On the tongue of a hummingbird: its role in the rate and energetics of feeding. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 46A:65-78.

Hiebert, S. 1993. Seasonal changes in body mass and use of torpor in a migratory hummingbird. Auk 110:787-797.

Hill, G. E., R. R. Sargent, and M. B. Sargent. 1998. Recent change in the winter distribution of Rufous Hummingbird. Auk 115:240-245.

Hurlbert, A. H., S. A. Hosoi, E. J. Temeles, and P. W. Ewald. 1996. Mobility of Impatiens capensis flowers: effect on pollen deposition and hummingbird foraging. Oecologia 105:243-246.

Larimer, J. L., and R. Dudley. 1995. Accelerational implications of hummingbird display dives. Auk 112:1064-1066.

Roberts, W. M. 1995. Hummingbird licking behavior and the energetics of nectar feeding. Auk 112:456-463.

Schuchmann, K. L. 1996. Family Trochilidae (hummingbirds). Pages 468-535 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 5. Barn-owls to hummingbirds (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Stiles, F. G. 1976. Taste preferences, color preferences, and flower choice in hummingbirds. Condor 78:10-26.

Stromberg, M. R., and P. B. Johnsen. 1990. Hummingbird sweetness preferences: taste or viscosity? Condor 92:606-612.

Weymouth, R. D., R. C. Lasiewski, and A. J. Berger. 1964. The tongue apparatus in hummingbirds. Acta anatomica 58:252-270.

TROGONS

Family Trogonidae

Chapter author: Sheri L. Williamson

Collar, N. J. 2001. Family Trogonidae (trogons). Pages 80-127 in Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 6. Mousebirds to hornbills (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Hall, L. S., and J. O. Karubian. 1996. Breeding behavior of Elegant Trogons in southeastern Arizona. Auk 113:143-150.

Johnsgard, P. A. 2000. Trogons and quetzals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

HOOPOE

Family Upupidae

Chapter author: John, B. Dunning, Jr.

Cramp, S. (Ed.). 1985. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume IV. Terns to Woodpeckers. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 786-799).

KINGFISHERS

Family Alcedinidae

Chapter author: David J. Krueper

American Ornithologists’ Union. 1998. Checklist of North American birds (7th ed.). Allen Press, Inc. Lawrence, KS.

Austin, O. L. Jr. 1961. Birds of the world. Golden Press. New York, NY.

Baicich, P. J., and C. J. O. Harrison. 1997. A guide to the nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds. Academic Press. San Diego, CA.

Bent, A. C. 1989. Life histories of North American cuckoos, goatsuckers, hummingbirds, and their allies. Dover Publications. Mineola, NY.

Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The birder’s handbook: A field guide to the natural history of North American birds. Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books. New York, NY.

Fry, C. H., K. Fry, and A. Harris. 1991. Kingfishers, bee-eaters, and rollers. Princeton University Press. Ewing, NJ.

Harrison, C. J. O. (Ed.). 1978. Bird families of the world. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York, NY.

Hilty, S. L., and W. L. Brown. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ.

Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press. New York, NY.

Kaufman, K. 1996. Lives of North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, MA.

Leahy, C. 1982. The birdwatcher’s companion: An encyclopedic handbook of North American birdlife. Bonanza Books. New York, NY.

Ridgely, R. S., and J. A. Gwynne. 1989. A guide to the birds of Panama. 2nd edn. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ.

Stiles, F. G., and A. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.

Stotz, D. F., J. W. Fitzpatrick, T. A. Parker III, D. K. Moskovits. 1996. Neotropical birds: Ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, IL.

U.S.D.A. Forest Service. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of the United States: Natural history and habitat use. Agricultural handbook 688.
WOODPECKERS

Family Picidae

Chapter author: J. Michael Reed

Bent, A. C. [1939] 1992. Life histories of North America woodpeckers. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN. [reprinted by Dover; among several reprinted editions]

Dodenhoff, D. J., R. D. Stark, and E. V. Johnson. 2001. Do woodpecker drums encode information for species recognition? Condor 103:143-150.

Eckstorm, F. H. 1900. The woodpeckers. Houghton, Mifflin, Boston, MA.

Kilham, L. 1983. Woodpeckers of eastern North America. Dover, New York, NY.

Koenig, W. D. 1986. Geographical ecology of clutch size variation in North American woodpeckers. Condor 88:499-504.

Noble, G. K. 1936. Courtship and sexual selection of the flicker (Colaptes auratus luteus). Auk 53:269-282.

Pyle, P., and S. N. G. Howell. 1995. Flight-feather molt patterns and age in North American woodpeckers. Journal of Field Ornithology 66:564-581.

Richardson, F. 1942. Adaptive modifications for tree-trunk foraging in birds. University of California Publications in Zoology 46:317-368.

Short, L. L. 1970. Reversed sexual dimorphism in tail length and foraging differences in woodpeckers. Bird-Banding 41:85-168.

Stark, R. D., D. J. Dodenhoff, and E. V. Johnson. 1998. A quantitative analysis of woodpecker drumming. Condor 100:350-356.

Vander Wall, S. B. 1990. Food hoarding in animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Walters, J.R. 1991. Application of ecological principles to the management of endangered species: the case of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 22:505-523.

Walters, J. R., C. K. Copeyon, and J. H. Carter, III. 1992. Test of the ecological basis of cooperative breeding in Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. Auk 109:90-97.

Winkler, H., D. A. Christie, and D. Nurney. 1995. Woodpeckers: an identification guide to the woodpeckers of the world. Houghton, Mifflin, Boston, MA.

TYRANT FLYCATCHERS

Family Tyrannidae

Chapter author: George A. Clark, Jr.

Abbott, D. J., III, and D. W. Finch. 1978. First Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus varius) record for the United States. American Birds 32:161-163.

Baltz, M. E., and D. E. Burhans. 1998. Rejection of artificial parasite eggs by Gray Kingbirds in the Bahamas. Condor 100:566-568.

Beaver, D. L., and P. H. Baldwin. 1975. Ecological overlap and the problem of competition in the Western and Hammond’s Flycatchers. Condor 77:1-13.

Bent, A. C. 1942. Life histories of North American flycatchers, larks, swallows, and their allies. Dover, New York, NY. (l963 reprint)

Bevier, L. R. (Ed.) 1994. The atlas of breeding birds of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 113.

Bowers, R., N. Bowers, and J. B. Dunning, JR. 1996. A closer look: Buff-breasted Flycatcher. Birding 28:408-413.

Bowers, R. K., JR., and J. B. Dunning, JR. 1987. Nutting’s Flycatcher (Myiarchus nuttingi) from Arizona. American Birds 41:5-10.

Conover, M. R., and D. E. Miller. 1980. Rictal bristle function in Willow Flycatcher. Condor 82: 469-471.

Conrad, K. E., R. J. Robertson, and P. T. Boag. 1998. Frequency of extrapair young increases in second broods of Eastern Phoebes. Auk 115:497-502.

Davis, L. I., and F. S. Webster, JR. 1970. An intergeneric hybrid flycatcher (Tyrannus X Muscivora). Condor 72:37-42.

Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1980. Wintering of North American tyrant flycatchers in the neotropics. Pages 67-78 in Migrant birds in the Neotropics: ecology, behavior, distribution and conservation (A. Keast, and E. S. Morton, Eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1981. Search strategies of tyrant flycatchers. Animal Behaviour 29:810-821.

Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1985. Form, foraging behavior, and adaptive radiation in the Tyrannidae. Ornithological Monographs 36:447-470.

Johnson, N. K. 1963. Biosystematics of sibling species of flycatchers in the Empidonax hammondii-oberholseri-wrightii complex. University of California Publications in Zoology 66:79-238.

Johnson, N. K. 1980. Character variation and evolution of sibling species in the Empidonax difficilis-flavescens complex (Aves: Tyrannidae). University of California Publications in Zoology 112:1-151.

Johnson, N. K. 1994. Old-school taxonomy versus modern biosystematics: species-level decisions in Stelgidopteryx and Empidonax. Auk 111:773-780.

Johnson, N. K., and J. A. Marten. 1988. Evolutionary genetics of flycatchers. II. Differentiation in the Empidonax difficilis group. Auk 105:177-191.

Keast, A., L. Pearce, and S. Saunders. 1995. How convergent is the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla, Parulinae) with flycatchers (Tyrannidae) in morphology and feeding behavior? Auk 112:310-325.

Lanyon, S. M. 1985. Molecular perspectives on higher-level relationships in the Tyrannidae (Aves). Systematic Zoology 34:404-418.

Lanyon, W. E. 1986. A phylogeny of the thirty-three genera in the Empidonax assemblage of tyrant flycatchers. American Museum Novitates 2846.

Lederer, R. J. 1972. The role of avian rictal bristles. Wilson Bulletin 84:193-197.

McKitrick, M. C. 1985. Monophyly of the Tyrannidae (Aves): comparison of morphology and DNA. Systematic Zoology 34:35-45.

Morgan, J. G., and L. M. Feltner. 1985. A neotropical bird flies north: the Greenish Elaenia. American Birds 39:242-244.

Mumford, R. E. 1964. The breeding biology of the Acadian Flycatcher. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 125:1-50.

Phillips, A. R., and K. C. Parkes. 1955. Taxonomic comments on the Western Wood Pewee. Condor 57:244.

Pyle, P. 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part I. Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA.

Regosin, J. V., and S. Pruett-Jones. 1995. Aspects of breeding biology and social organization in the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher. Condor 97:154-164.

Rising, J. D., and F. W. Schueler. 1980. Identification and status of wood pewees (Contopus) from the Great Plains: what are sibling species? Condor 82:301-308.

Sealy, S. G., and G. C. Biermann. 1983. Timing of breeding and migration in a population of Least Flycatchers in Manitoba. Journal of Field Ornithology 54:113-124.

Short, L. L., Jr., and T. D. Burleigh. 1965. An intergeneric hybrid flycatcher (Contopus X Empidonax) from Idaho. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 78:33-37.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1985. Phylogeny and classification of New World suboscine passerine birds (Passeriformes: Oligomyodi: Tyrannides). Ornithological Monograph 36:396-428.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Smith, P. W., and D. S. Evered. 1992. La Sagra’s Flycatcher. Birding 24: 294-297.

Stein, R. C. 1958. The behavioral, ecological and morphological characteristics of two populations of the Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii (Audubon). New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin 371:1-63.

Stein, R. C. 1963. Isolating mechanisms between populations of Traill’s Flycatcher. Proceedings American Philosophical Society 107:21-58.

Traylor, M. A., Jr. 1979. Two sibling species of Tyrannus (Tyrannidae). Auk 96:221-233.

Traylor, M. A., Jr., and J. W. Fitzgerald. 1982. A survey of the tyrant flycatchers. Living Bird 19:7-45.

Tyler, J. D., and K. C. Parkes. 1992. A hybrid Scissor-tailed Flycatcher X Western Kingbird specimen from southwestern Oklahoma. Wilson Bulletin 104:178-181.

Wilson, R. R., and R. J. Cooper. 1998. Breeding biology of the Acadian Flycatcher in a bottomland hardwood forest. Wilson Bulletin 110:226-232.

Zimmer, B., and K. Bryan. 1993. First United States record of Tufted Flycatcher. American Birds 47:48-50.

Zink, R. M., and N. K. Johnson. 1984. Evolutionary genetics of flycatchers. I. Sibling species in the genera Empidonax and Contopus. Systematic Zoology 33:205-216.

SHRIKES

Family Laniidae

Chapter author: Alec Humann

Cramp, S., and C. M. Perrins (Eds.) 1993. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume VII. Old World flycatchers to shrikes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 433-522).

Harris, T. 2000. Shrikes and bush-shrikes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Lefranc, N. 1997. Shrikes: A guide to the shrikes of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Yosef, R. 1994. Evaluation of the global decline in the true shrikes (family Laniidae). Auk 111:228-233.

Yosef, R., and B. Pinshow. 1989. Cache size in shrikes influences female mate choice and reproductive success. Auk 106:418-421.
VIREOS

Family Vireonidae

Chapter author: Joseph A. Grzybowski

Barlow, J. C., R. D. James, and N. Williams. 1970. Habitat co-occupancy among some vireos of the subgenus Vireo (Aves: Vireonidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 48:395-398.

Barlow, J. C., and S. V. Nash. 1985. Behavior and nesting biology of the St. Andrew Vireo. Wilson Bulletin 97:265-272.

Bates, J. M. 1992. Frugivory on Bursera microphylla (Burseraceae) by the wintering Gray Vireos (Vireo vicinior, Vireonidae) in the coastal deserts of Sonora, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 37:252-258.

Brown, B. T. 1993. Bell’s Vireo (Vireo bellii). In The Birds of North America, No. 35 (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Bond, J. 1971. Birds of the West Indies. 2nd Edn. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

Borror, D. J. 1981. The songs and singing behavior of the Red-eyed Vireo. Condor 83:217-228.

Cicero, C., and N. K. Johnson. 1992. Genetic differentiation between populations of Hutton’s Vireo (Aves: Vireonidae) in disjunct allopatry. Southwestern Naturalist 37:344-348.

Davis, J. N. 1995. Hutton’s Vireo (Vireo huttoni). In The Birds of North America, No. 189 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The birder’s handbook. Simon and Schuster, Inc., New York, NY.

Grzybowski, J. A. 1995. Black-capped Vireo (Vireo atricapillus). In The Birds of North America, No. 181 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Hamilton, T. H. 1962. Species relationships and adaptations for sympatry in the avian genus Vireo. Condor 64:40-68.

Hilty, S. L., and W. L. Brown. 1986. A guide to the birds of Columbia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Hopp, S. L., A. Kirby, and C. A. Boone. 1995. White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus). In The Birds of North America, No. 168 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Howes-Jones, D. 1985. Relationships among song activity, context, and social behavior in the Warbling Vireo. Wilson Bulletin 97:4-20.

Howes-Jones, D. 1985. The complex song of the Warbling Vireo. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:2756-2766.

James, R. D. 1981. Factors affecting variation in the primary song of North American solitary vireos (Aves: Vireonidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 59:2001-2009.

James, R. D. 1984. Structure, frequency of usage, and apparent learning in the primary song of the yellow-throated vireo, with comparative notes on solitary vireos (Aves: Vireonidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 62:468-472.

Johnston, N. K. 1995. Speciation in vireos. I. Macrogeographic patterns of allozymic variation in the Vireo solitarius complex in the contiguous United States. Condor 97:903-919.

Johnson, N. K., R. M. Zink, and J. A. Marten. 1988. Genetic evidence for relationships in the avian family Vireonidae. Condor 90:428-445.

Moskoff, W., and S. K. Robinson. 1996. Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philadelphicus). In The Birds of North America, No. 214 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Peterson, R. T., and E. L. Chalif. 1973. A field guide to the Mexican birds. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Rice, J. C. 1978. Behavioral interactions of interspecifically territorial vireos. I. Song discrimination and natural interactions. Animal Behaviour 26:527-549.

Rice, J. C. 1978. Behavioral interactions of interspecifically territorial vireos. II. Seasonal variation in response intensity. Animal Behaviour 26:550-561.

Rice, J. 1978. Ecological relationships of two interspecifically territorial vireos. Ecology 59:526-538.

Rodewald, P. G., and R. D. James. 1996. Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons). In The Birds of North America, No. 247 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Sauer, J. R., B. G. Peterjohn, S. Schwartz, and J. E. Hines. 1996. The North American Breeding Bird Survey results and analysis. Version 95.1. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland.

Smith, W. J., J. Pawlukiewicz, and S.T. Smith. 1978. Kinds of activities correlated with singing patterns of the Yellow-throated Vireo. Animal Behaviour 26:862-884.

Stiles, F. G., and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comstock Publishing Assocation, Ithaca, NY.

Sutton, G. M. 1967. Oklahoma birds. [Their ecology and distribution, with comments on the avifauna of the southern Great Plains.] University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK.

Van Tyne, J., and A. J. Berger. 1959. Fundamentals of Ornithology. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

CROWS AND JAYS

Family Corvidae

Chapter author: Kevin J. McGowan

Balda, R. P., A. C. Kamil, and P. A. Bednekoff. 1996. Predicting cognitive capacity from natural history: examples from four species of corvids. Current Ornithology 13:33-66.

Birkhead, T. R.. 1991. The magpies: The ecology and behaviour of Black-billed and Yellow-billed Magpies. Academic Press, London.

Cox, J. A. 1987. Status and distribution of the Florida Scrub Jay. Florida Ornithological Society, Special Publication No. 3, Gainesville, FL.

Enggist-Dublin, P., and T. R. Birkhead. 1992. Differences in the calls of European and North American Black-billed Magpies and the Yellow-billed Magpie. Bioacoustics 4:185-194.

Goodwin, D. 1986. Crows of the world. 2nd Edn. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Heinrich, B. 1991. Ravens in winter. Vintage Books.

Heinrich, B. 2000. Mind of the raven: investigations and adventures with wolf-birds. HarperCollins, London.

Kamil, A. C., and J. E. Jones. 1997. The seed-storing corvid Clark’s nutcracker learns geometric relationships among landmarks. Nature 390:276-279.

Madge, S., and H. Burn. 1994. Crows and jays: A guide to the crows, jays and magpies of the world. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

Marzluff, J. M., and R. P. Balda. 1992. The Pinyon Jay: behavioral ecology of a colonial and cooperative corvid. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Peterson, A. T. 1991. Gene flow in scrub jays: frequency and direction of movement. Condor 93:926-934.

Peterson, A. T. 1992. Phylogeny and rates of molecular evolution in Aphelocoma jays (Corvidae). Auk 109:133-147.

Woolfenden, G. E., and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1984. The Florida Scrub Jay: demography of a cooperative-breeding bird. Monographs in Population Biology No. 20, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

LARKS

Family Alaudidae

Chapter author: Charles H. Trost

Beason, R. C. 1995. Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris). In The birds of North America, No. 195 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Behle, W. H. 1942. Distribution and variation of the Horned Larks (Otocoris alpestris) of western North America. University of California Publications in Zoology 46:205-316.

Campbell, R. W. 1997. Sky Lark (Alauda arvensis). In The birds of North America, No. 286 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

SWALLOWS AND MARTINS

Family Hirundinidae

Chapter authors: Frederick H. Sheldon and David W. Winkler

Brown, C. R., and M. B. Brown. 1996. Coloniality in the Cliff Swallow: The effect of group size on social behavior. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Møller, A. P. 1994. Sexual selection and the Barn Swallow. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY.

Sheldon, F. H., and D. W. Winkler. 1993. Intergeneric phylogenetic relationships of swallows estimated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 110:798-824.

Turner, A. T., and C. Rose. 1989. Swallows and Martins. An identification guide and handbook. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

Winkler, D. W., and F. H. Sheldon. 1993. The evolution of nest construction in swallows (Hirundinidae): A molecular phylogenetic perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90:5705-5707.

CHICKADEES AND TITMICE

Family Paridae

Chapter author: Alec Humann

Avise, J. C., and R. M. Zink. 1988. Molecular genetic divergence between avian sibling species: King and Clapper rails, Long-billed and Short-billed dowitchers, Boat-tailed and Great-tailed grackles, and Tufted and Black-crested titmice. Auk 105:516-528.

Cicero, C. 1996. Sibling species of titmice in the Parus inornatus complex (Aves: Paridae). University of California Publications in Zoology 128.

Cramp, S., and C. M. Perrins (Eds.). 1993. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume VII. Flycatchers to shrikes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 145-281).

Gill, F. B., D. H. Funk, and B. Silverin. 1989. Protein relationships among titmice (Parus). Wilson Bulletin 101:182-197

Harrop, S., and D. Quinn. 1995. Chickadees, tits, nuthatches and treecreepers. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Sheldon, F. H., and F. B. Gill. 1996. A reconsideration of songbird phylogeny, with emphasis on the evolution of titmice and their sylvioid relatives. Systematic Biology 45:473-495.

Sheldon, F. H., B. Slikas, M. Kinnarney, F. B. Gill, E. Zhao, and B. Silverin. 1992. DNA-DNA hybridization evidence of phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of Parus. Auk 109:173-185.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Slikas, B., F. H. Sheldon, and F. B. Gill. 1996. Phylogeny of titmice (Paridae): I. Estimate of relationships among subgenera based on DNA-DNA hybridization. Journal of Avian Biology 27:70-82.

PENDULINE TITS (VERDIN)

Family Remizidae

Chapter author: Alec Humann

Austin, G. T. 1976. Behavioral adaptations of the Verdin to the desert. Auk 93:245-262.

Harrop, S., and D. Quinn. 1995. Chickadees, tits, nuthatches and treecreepers. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Sheldon, F. H., and F. B. Gill. 1996. A reconsideration of songbird phylogeny, with emphasis on the evolution of titmice and their sylvioid relatives. Systematic Biology 45:473-495.

Sheldon, F. H., B. Slikas, M. Kinnarney, F. B. Gill, E. Zhao, and B. Silverin. 1992. DNA-DNA hybridization evidence of phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of Parus. Auk 109:173-185.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Walsberg, G. E. 1990. Communal roosting in a very small bird: consequences for the thermal and respiratory gas environments. Condor 92:795-798.

LONG-TAILED TITS (BUSHTIT)

Family Aegithalidae

Chapter author: Alec Humann

Bruce, J. P., J. S. Quinn, S. A. Sloane, and B. N. White. 1996. DNA fingerprinting reveals monogamy in the Bushtit, a cooperatively breeding species. Auk 113:511-516.

Harrop, S., and D. Quinn. 1995. Chickadees, tits, nuthatches and treecreepers. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Raitt, R. J. 1967. Relationships between Black-eared and Plain-eared forms of Bushtits (Psaltriparus). Auk 84:503-528.

Sheldon, F. H., and F. B. Gill. 1996. A reconsideration of songbird phylogeny, with emphasis on the evolution of titmice and their sylvioid relatives. Systematic Biology 45:473-495.

Sloane, S. A. 1996. Incidence and origins of supernumeraries at Bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus) nests. Auk 113:757-770.

NUTHATCHES

Family Sittidae

Chapter author: J. Michael Reed

Bent, A. C. 1948. Life histories of North American nuthatches, wrens, thrashers, and their allies. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 195. [reprinted by Dover]

Bock, C. E., and L. W. Lepthien. 1972. Winter irruptions of Red-breasted Nuthatches in North America, 1950-1970. American Birds 26:558-561.

Harrop, S., and D. Quinn. 1995. Chickadees, tits, nuthatches and treecreepers. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Kilham, L. 1968. Reproductive behavior of White-breasted Nuthatches. I. Distraction displays, bill-sweeping, and nest hole defense. Auk 85:477-492.

Kilham, L. 1972. Reproductive behavior of White-breasted Nuthatches. II. Courtship. Auk 89:115-129.

Kilham, L. 1973. Reproductive behavior of Red-breasted Nuthatches. I. Courtship. Auk 90:597-609.

Matthysen, E. 1998. The nuthatches. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

Morse, D. H. 1968. The use of tools by Brown-headed Nuthatches. Wilson Bulletin 80:220-224.

Norris, R. A. 1958. Comparative biosystematics and the life history of the nuthatches Sitta pygmaea and Sitta pusilla. University of California Publications in Zoology 56:119-300.

Rand, A. L. 1972. Nest-entrance modification in the nuthatches. Auk 89: 450-451.

Richardson, F. 1942. Adaptive modifications for tree-trunk foraging in birds. University of California Publications in Zoology 46: 317-368.

CREEPERS

Family Certhiidae

Chapter author: J. Michael Reed

Baptista, L. F., and R. Krebs. 2000. Vocalizations and relationships of Brown Creepers Certhia americana: a taxonomic mystery. Ibis 142:457-465.

Bent, A. C. 1948. Life histories of North American nuthatches, wrens, thrashers, and their allies. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 195. [reprinted by Dover]

Davis, C. M. 1978. A nesting study of the Brown Creeper. Living Bird 17:237-263.

Harrop, S., and D. Quinn. 1995. Chickadees, tits, nuthatches & treecreepers. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Norberg, R. Å. 1981. Why foraging birds in trees should climb and hop upwards rather than downwards. Ibis 123:281-288.

Norberg, R. Å. 1986. Treecreeper climbing: mechanics, energetics, and structural adaptations. Ornis Scandinavica 17:191-209.

Richardson, F. 1942. Adaptive modifications for tree-trunk foraging in birds. University of California Publications in Zoology 46:317-368.
WRENS

Family Troglodytidae

Chapter author: F. Keith Barker

Baylis, J. R. 1982. Avian vocal mimicry: its function and evolution. Pages 51-83 in Acoustic communication in birds. Vol. 2. (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, Eds.). Academic Press, London.

Brewer, D., and B. K. Mackay. 2001. Wrens, dippers and thrashers: A guide to the wrens, dippers, and thrashers of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Brumfield, R. T., and A. P. Capparella. 1996. Genetic differentiation and taxonomy in the House Wren species group. Condor 98:547-556.

Gish, S. L., and E. S. Morton. 1981. Structural adaptations to local habitat acoustics in Carolina Wren songs. Zeitschrift fuer Tierpsychologie 56:74-84.

Kroodsma, D. E. 1977. Correlates of song organization among North American wrens. American Naturalist 111:995-1008.

Kroodsma, D. E., and R. A. Canady. 1985. Differences in repertoire size, singing behavior, and associated neuroanatomy among Marsh Wren populations have a genetic basis. Auk 102:439-446.

Kroodsma, D. E. 1989. Two North American song populations of the Marsh Wren reach distributional limits in the central Great Plains. Condor 91:332-340.

Kroodsma, D. E., W.-C. Liu, E. Goodwin, and P. A. Bedell. 1999. The ecology of song improvisation as illustrated by North American Sedge Wrens. Auk 116:373-386.

Pribil, S., and J. Picman. 1991. Why House Wrens destroy clutches of other birds: a support for the nest site competition hypothesis. Condor 93:184-185.

Sheldon, F. H., and F. B. Gill. 1996. A reconsideration of songbird phylogeny, with emphasis on the evolution of titmice and their sylvioid relatives. Systematic Biology 45:473-495.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Simons, L. S., and L. H. Simons. 1990. Experimental studies of nest-destroying behavior by Cactus Wrens. Condor 92:855-860.

Verner, J., and G. H. Engelsen. 1970. Territories, multiple nest building, and polygyny in the Long-billed Marsh Wren. Auk 87:557-567.

DIPPERS

Family Cinclidae

Chapter author: Thomas Knight

Kingery, H. E. 1996. American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus). In The birds of North America, No. 229 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Price, F. E., and C. E. Bock. 1983. Population ecology of the dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) in the Front Range of Colorado. Studies in Avian Biology 7.

Tyler, S. J., and S. J. Ormerod. 1994. The dippers. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.

BULBULS

Family Pycnonotidae

Chapter author: James D. Rising

Carleton, A. R., and O. T. Owre. 1975. The Red-whiskered Bulbul in Florida: 1960-71. Auk 92:40-57.

Cramp, S. (Ed.). 1988. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume V. Tyrant flycatchers to thrushes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 474-490).

Lever, C. 1987. Naturalized birds of the world. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, UK. (pp. 310-314).

Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced birds of the world. Universe Books, New York, NY. (pp. 296-299).

Owre, O. T. 1973. A consideration of the exotic avifauna of southeastern Florida. Wilson Bulletin 85:491-500.

KINGLETS

Family Regulidae

Chapter author: John Kricher

Bent, A. C. 1949. Life histories of North American thrushes, kinglets, and their allies. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. (reprinted 1964).

OLD WORLD WARBLERS AND GNATCATCHERS

Family Sylviidae

Chapter author: Kathleen Groschupf

Atwood, J. L. 1988. Speciation and geographic variation in black-tailed gnatcatchers. Ornithological Monographs 42.

Beaman, M., and S. Madge. 1998. The handbook of bird identification for Europe and the Western Palearctic. Christopher Helm, London.

Cramp, S. 1992. The birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 6. Warblers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Dunn, J. L., and K. L. Garrett. 1987. The identification of North American gnatcatchers. Birding 19:17-29.

Ellison, W. G. 1992. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea). In The birds of North America, No. 23 (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Groschupf, K. 1992. A closer look: black-capped gnatcatcher. Rare, local, little-known, and declining North American breeders. Birding 24:160-164.

Root, R. B. 967. The niche exploitation pattern of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Ecological Monographs 37:317-349.

OLD WORLD FLYCATCHERS

Family Muscicapidae

Chapter author: John, B. Dunning, Jr.

Cramp, S., and C. M. Perrins (Eds.). 1993. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume VII. Flycatchers to shrikes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 5-86).

THRUSHES

Family Turdidae

Chapter author: John Kricher

Bent, A. C. 1949. Life histories of North American thrushes, kinglets, and their allies. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. (reprinted 1964).

Clement, R., and R. Hathway. 2000. Thrushes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

WRENTIT

Family Timaliidae

Chapter authors: Nadav Nur and Geoffrey R. Geupel

Bent, A. C. 1964. Life histories of North American nuthatches, wrens, thrashers and their allies. Dover Publishers Inc., New York, NY.

Erickson, M. M. 1938. Territory, annual cycle and numbers in a population of wren-tits (Chamaea fasciata). University of California Publications in Zoology 42:247-334.

Fleischer, R. C., W. I. Boarman, and M. L. Cody. 1985. Asynchrony of song series in the Bewick’s Wren and Wrentit. Animal Behaviour 33:674-676.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Wrentit as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Condor 84:40-44.

MOCKINGBIRDS AND THRASHERS

Family Mimidae

Chapter author: Gary H. Rosenberg

Baylis, J. R. 1982. Avian vocal mimicry: its function and evolution. Pages 51-83 in Acoustic communication in birds. Vol. 2. (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, Eds.). Academic Press, London.

Brewer, D., and B. K. Mackay. 2001. Wrens, dippers and thrashers: A guide to the wrens, dippers, and thrashers of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Burtt, E. H., Jr., J. A. Swanson, B. A. Porter, S. M. Waterhouse. 1994. Wing-flashing in mockingbirds of the Galápagos Islands. Wilson Bulletin 106:559-562.

Engels, W. L. 1940. Structural adaptations in thrashers (Mimidae: Genus Toxostoma) with comments on interspecific relationships. University of California Publications in Zoology 42:341-400.

Hailman, J. P. 1960. A field study of the mockingbird’s wing-flashing behavior and its association with foraging. Wilson Bulletin 72:346-357.

Kroodsma, D. E. and L. D. Parker. 1977. Vocal virtuosity in the Brown Thrasher. Auk 94:783-785.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1984. The relationships of the starlings (Sturnidae: sturnini) and the Mockingbirds (Sturnidae: mimini). Auk 101:230-243.

Zink, R. M., R. C. Blackwell, and O. Rojas-Soto. 1997. Species limits in the Le Conte’s Thrasher. Condor 99:132-138.

Zink, R. M., A. E. Kessen, T. V. Line, and R. Blackwell-Rago. 2001. Comparative phylogeography of some aridland bird species. Condor 103:1-10.

STARLINGS AND MYNAS

Family Sturnidae

Chapter author: James D. Rising

Beecher, W. J. 1978. Feeding adaptations and evolution in the starlings. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 11:269-298.

Cramp, S., and C. M. Perrins (Eds.). 1994. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume VIII. Crows to finches. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 228-287).

Feare, C. 1984. The Starling. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lever, C. 1987. Naturalized birds of the world. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, UK. (pp. 478-511).

Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced birds of the world. Universe Books, New York, NY. (pp. 356-372).

ACCENTORS

Family Prunellidae

Chapter author: John B. Dunning, Jr.

Cramp, S. (Ed.). 1988. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume V. Tyrant flycatchers to thrushes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 547-585).

Davies, N.B. 1992. Dunnock behaviour and social evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [Author’s note: Technical, but a thorough documentation of a species with one of the most complex social systems of all birds. The Dunnock or Hedge Accentor is related to the Siberian Accentor which is the only member of this family recorded in North America.]

WAGTAILS AND PIPITS

Family Motacillidae

Chapter authors: Alex Badyaev and Paul Hendricks

[Author’s note: the references on biology of Motacilla lugens and M. ocularis (all Japanese references) and east-Siberian ones are the most relevant to North American wagtail biology.]

Bent, A. C. 1950. Life histories of North American wagtails, shrikes, vireos, and their allies. United States National Museum Bulletin 197.

Bell, C. P. 1996. Seasonality and time allocation as causes of leap-frog migration in the Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava. Journal of Avian Biology 27:334-342.

Broom, D. M., W. J. A. Dick, C. E. Johnson, D. I. Sales, and A. Zahavi. 1976. Pied wagtail roosting and feeding behaviour. Bird Study 23:267-279.

Cuadrado, M. 1994. Flycatching behaviour in some passerines during the late breeding season at Ammarnäs, Swedish Lapland. Ornis Svecica 4:25-30.

Czikeli, H. 1985. Biochemical genetics in the yellow wagtail complex: Conservative avian protein evolution confirmed by isoelectric focusing. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 12:171-178.

Davies, N. B. 1977. Prey selection and social behaviour in wagtails (Aves: Motacillidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 46:37-57.

Davies, N. B., AND A. I. Houston. 1981. Owners and satellites: the economics of territory defence in the Pied Wagtail, Motacilla alba. Journal of Animal Ecology 50:157-180.

Davies, N. B., AND A. I. Houston. 1983. Time allocation between territories and flocks and owner-satellite conflict in foraging Pied Wagtails, Motacilla alba. Journal of Animal Ecology 52:621-634.

Gavrilov, V. V. 1991. Time and energy budget of a pair of White Wagtails (Motacilla alba) during prenesting period. Ornitologia 25:62-68.

Gavrilov, V. V. 1991. The equation of growth of White Wagtail nestlings near northernmost area of distribution. Ornitologia 25:183-185.

Hall, B. P. 1961. The taxonomy and identification of pipits (genus Anthus). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 7:243-289.

Hendricks, P. 1987. Habitat use by nesting Water Pipits (Anthus spinoletta): a test of the snowfield hypothesis. Arctic and Alpine Research 19:313-320.

Hendricks, P. 1987. Foraging patterns of Water Pipits (Anthus spinoletta) with nestlings. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65:1522-1529.

Higuchi, H., and T. Hirano. 1981. Breeding records and breeding habitats of the White Wagtail Motacilla alba in Tochigi Prefecture. Tori 29:121-128.

Higuchi, H., and T. Hirano. 1983. Comparative ecology of White and Japanese wagtails, Motacilla alba and M. grandis, in winter. Tori 32:1-11.

Higuchi, H., and T. Hirano. 1989. Breeding season, courtship behaviour, and territoriality of White and Japanese wagtails Motacilla alba and M. grandis. Ibis 131:578-588.

Higuchi, T., and H. Hirano. 1986. Dominance hierarchy among wagtail and pipit species living along streams. Japan. Journal of Ornithology 35:79-80.

Howell, S. N. G. 1990. Identification of White and Black-backed wagtails in alternate plumage. Western Birds 21:41-49.

Källander, H. 1992. Commensal feeding associations between Yellow Wagtails Motacilla flava and cattle. Ibis 135:97-100.

Kessel, B. 1989. Birds of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. University of Alaska Press. Fairbanks, AK.

King, B.1981. The field identification of North American pipits. American Birds 35:778-788.

Knox, A. 1988. Taxonomy of the Rock/Water Pipit superspecies Anthus petrosus, spinoletta and rubescens. British Birds 81:206-211.

Leinonen, M. 1973. On the breeding biology of the White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) in central Finland. Ornis Fennica 50:53-82.

Mason, C. F., and F. Lyczynski. 1980. Breeding biology of the Pied and Yellow wagtails. Bird Study 27:1-10.

Miller, J. H., and M. T. Green. 1987. Distribution, status, and origin of Water Pipits breeding in California. Condor 89:788-797.

Morlan, J. 1981. Status and identification of forms of White Wagtails in western North America. Continental Birdlife 2:37-50.

Nazarenko, A. A. 1968. On the character of interrelations of two forms of Pied Wagtails in south Ussuriland. Problemi evolutsii 1:195-201.

Phillips, A. R. 1991. The known birds of North and Middle America. Part II. Privately published. Denver, CO.

Rezanov, A. G. 1981. Feeding behavior and modes of feeding in the White Wagtail Motacilla alba (Passeriformes, Motacillidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 60:548-556.

Robbins, M. B. 1998. Display behavior of male Sprague’s Pipits. Wilson Bulletin 110:435-438.

Serra, L. 1992. Ageing criteria and moult conditions in the Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava, during spring migration. Rivista Italiana Ornitologia 62:22-28.

Simms, E. 1992. British larks, pipits and wagtails. Harper Collins, London.

Sutter, G. C. 1997. Nest-site selection and nest-entrance orientation in Sprague’s Pipit. Wilson Bulletin 109:462-469.

Sutton, G. M., and D. F. Parmelee. 1954. Survival problems of the Water-Pipit in Baffin Island. Arctic 7:81-92.

Verbeek, N. A. M. 1970. Breeding ecology of the Water Pipit. Auk 87:425-451.

Wagner, G. F. 1991. Black-backed Wagtail nests on Attu Island, Alaska. American Birds 45:53-55.

Watanabe, M. and N. Maruyama. 1977. Wintering ecology of White Wagtail Motacilla alba lugens in the middle stream of Tama River. Miscellaneous Report of the Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 9:20-43.

Wood, B. 1978. Changes in numbers of over-wintering Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava and their food supplies in a West African savanna. Ibis 121:228-231.

Wood, B. 1982. The trans-Saharan spring migration of Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava). Journal of Zoology 197:267-283.

Wood, B. 1992. Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava migration from west Africa to Europe: pointers towards a conservation strategy for migrants on passage. Ibis 134, suppl. 1:66-76.

Yakovleva, G. A., T. A. Rimkevich, and G. A. Noskov. 1987. Comparative characteristics of post-embriotic development of post-juvenile molt of White Wagtails (Motacilla alba L.) from early and late broods. Vestnik Leningr. University 2:12-20.

Zahavi, A. 1971. The social behaviour of the White Wagtail Motacilla alba alba wintering in Israel. Ibis 113:203-211.

Zink, R. M., S. Rohwer, A. V. Andreev, and D. L. Dittman. 1995. Trans-Beringia comparisons of mitochondrial DNA differentiation in birds. Condor 97:639-649.

WAXWINGS

Family Bombycillidae

Chapter author: Mark Witmer

Cramp, S. (Ed.). 1988. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Volume 5. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (pp. 490-502.)

Mountjoy, J., and R. J. Robertson. 1988. Why are waxwings “waxy”? Delayed plumage maturation in the Cedar Waxwing. Auk 105:61-69.

Putnam, L. S. 1949. The life history of the Cedar Waxwing. Wilson Bulletin 61:141-182.

Witmer, M. C. 1996. Annual diet of Cedar Waxwing based on U.S. Biological Survey records (1885-1950) compared to diet of American Robin: contrasts in dietary patterns and natural history. Auk 113:414-430.

Witmer, M. C. 1996. Consequences of an alien shrub on the plumage coloration and ecology of Cedar Waxwings. Auk 113:735-743.

Witmer, M.C., D. J. Mountjoy, and L. Elliott. 1997. Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum). in The birds of North America, No. 309 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

SILKY-FLYCATCHERS

Family Ptilogonatidae

Chapter author: David J. Krueper

Austin, O. L. Jr. 1961. Birds of the world. Golden Press, New York, NY.

Baicich, P. J., and C. J. O. Harrison. 1997. A guide to the nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Bent, A. C. 1989. Life histories of North American wagtails, shrikes, vireos, and their allies. Dover Publications (reprint), Mineola, NY.

Grinnell, J., and A. H. Miller. 1944. The distribution of the birds of California (1986 reprint). Artemisia Press, Lee Vining, CA.

Harrison, C. J. O. (Ed.). 1978. Bird families of the world. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, NY.

Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Leahy, C. 1982. The birdwatcher’s companion: An encyclopedic handbook of North American birdlife. Bonanza Books, New York, NY.

Phillips, A., J. Marshall, and G. Monson. 1964. The birds of Arizona. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Ridgely, R. S., and J. A. Gwynne. 1989. A guide to the birds of Panama. 2nd Edn. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Stiles, F. G., and A. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Stotz, D. F., J. W. Fitzpatrick, T. A. Parker III, D. K. Moskovits. 1996. Neotropical birds: Ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

U.S.D.A. Forest Service. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of the United States: Natural history and habitat use. Agricultural handbook 688.

Walsberg, G. E. 1977. Ecology and energetics of contrasting social systems in Phainopepla nitens (Aves: Ptilogonatidae). University of California Publications in Zoology 108:1-63.

OLIVE WARBLER

Family Peucedramidae

Chapter author: John, B. Dunning, Jr.

Brandt, H. 1951. Arizona and its bird life. Bird Research Foundation, Cleveland, OH.

Dunn, J. L., and K. L. Garrett. 1997. A field guide to warblers of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Harrison, H. H. 1984. The wood warbler’s world. Simon and Schuster, New York, NY.

Lowther, P.E., and J. Nocedal. 1997. Olive Warbler (Peucedramus taeniatus). in The birds of North America. No. 310. (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

WOOD-WARBLERS

Family Parulidae

Chapter authors: Kimball L. Garrett and John B. Dunning, Jr.

Borror, D. J., and W. W. H. Gunn. 1985. Songs of the warblers of North America. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Library of Natural Sounds, Ithaca, NY.

Chapman, F. M. 1917. The warblers of North America. 3rd Ed. D. Appleton, New York, NY.

Curson, J., D. Quinn, and D. Beadle. 1994. Warblers of the Americas, an identification guide. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Dunn, J. L., and K. L. Garrett. 1997. A field guide to warblers of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Griscom, L., and A. Sprunt Jr. (Eds.) 1957. The warblers of America. Devin-Adair, New York, NY.

Harrison, H. H. 1984. The wood warbler’s world. Simon and Schuster, New York, NY.

Male, M., and J. Fieth. 1996. Watching warblers (video). Blue Earth Films.

Morse, D. H. 1989. American warblers. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Pyle, P. 1997. Identification guide to North American birds, Part 1. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA.

Spector, D. A. 1992. Wood-warbler song systems: a review of paruline singing behaviors. Current Ornithology 9:199-238.

BANANAQUIT

Family Coerebidae

Chapter author: John, B. Dunning, Jr.

Emlen, J. T. 1977. Land bird communities of Grand Bahama Island: the structure and dynamics of an avifauna. Ornithological Monograph 24.

Lack, D. 1976. Island biology, illustrated by the birds of Jamaica. Blackwell, Oxford.

Rathcke, B. J. 2000. Hurricane causes resources and pollination limitation of fruit set in a bird-pollinated shrub. Ecology 81:1951-1958.

White, B. 1991. Common birds of San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador, Bahamas.

Wunderle, J. M. 1983. A shift in the morph ratio cline in the Bananaquit on Grenada, West Indies. Condor 85:365-367.

Wunderle, J. M. 1995. Responses of bird populations in a Puerto Rican forest to Hurricane Hugo: the first 18 months. Condor 97:879-896.

TANAGERS

Family Thraupidae

Chapter authors: Allison Childs Wells and Jeffrey V. Wells

Bent, A. C. 1965. Life histories of North American blackbirds, orioles, tanagers, and allies. Dover Publications, New York, NY.

Isler, M. L., and P. R. Isler. 1999. The tanagers: natural history, distribution, and identification. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Prescott, K. W. 1965. The Scarlet Tanager. New Jersey State Museum Investigations No. 2.

Rosenberg, K. V., J. D. Lowe, and A. A. Dhondt. 1999. Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding tanagers: a continental perspective. Conservation Biology 13:568-583.

Rosenberg, K. V., R. W. Rohrbaugh, Jr., S. E. Barker, J. D. Lowe, R. S. Hames, and A. A. Dhondt. 1999. A land manager’s guide to improving habitat for scarlet tanagers and other forest-interior birds. The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY. [Author’s note: This is online at http://birds.cornell.edu/conservation/tanager/]

Shy, E. 1983. The relation of geographical variation in song to habitat characteristics and body size in North American tanagers (Thraupinae: Piranga). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 12:71-76

Shy, E. 1984. Habitat shifts and geographical variation in North American tanagers (Thraupinae: Piranga). Oecologia 63:281-285.

Skutch, A. F. 1989. Life of the tanager. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

NEW WORLD SPARROWS

Family Emberizidae

Chapter author: John, B. Dunning, Jr.

Baptista, L. F., and J. R. King. 1980. Geographical variation in song and song dialects of montane White-crowned Sparrows. Condor 82:267-284.

Bajema, R.A., et al. 2001. Reclaimed coal mine grasslands and their significance for Henslow’s Sparrows in the American Midwest. Auk 118:422-431.

Byers, C., J. Curson, and U. Olsson. 1995. Sparrows and buntings: a guide to the sparrows and buntings of North America and the world. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

DeBenedictis, P. A. 1995. Sharp-tailed Sparrow: a parable of field ornithology. Birding 27:312-314.

Dunning, J. B., and J. H. Brown. 1982. Summer rainfall and winter sparrow densities: a test of the food limitation hypothesis. Auk 99:123-129.

Dunning, J. B., and B. D. Watts. 1990. Regional differences in habitat occupancy by Bachman’s Sparrow. Auk 107:463-472.

Ketterson, E. D., and V. Nolan. 1976. Geographic variation and its climatic correlates in the sex ratio of eastern wintering Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis hyemalis). Ecology 57:679-693.

Knapton, R. W., et al. 1984. A comparison of breeding ecology and reproductive success between morphs of the White-throated Sparrow. Wilson Bulletin 96:60-71.

Lockwood, J. L. et al. 1997. Life history of the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow. Wilson Bulletin 109:720-731.

Nice, M. M. 1939. Watcher at the nest. Macmillan Co., New York, NY. [Author’s note: A classic in behavioral ecology summarizing studies done by a woman – Margaret Morse Nice – who was far ahead of her time. She studied Song Sparrows breeding around her home.]

Pulliam, H. R., and J. B. Dunning. 1987. The influence of food supply on local density and diversity of sparrows. Ecology 68:1009-1014.

Pulliam, H. R., and G. S. Mills. 1977. The use of space by wintering sparrows. Ecology 58:1393-1399.

Quay, T. L., et al. 1983. The Seaside Sparrow, its biology and management. Occasional Papers of the North Carolina Biological Survey, 1983-5.

Rising, J. D. 1996. A guide to the identification and natural history of the sparrows of the United States and Canada. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Vickery, P. D., and J. R. Herkert. 1999. Ecology and conservation of grassland birds of the Western Hemisphere. Studies in Avian Biology 19. [Author’s note: Symposium on conservation, habitat needs and population trends of grassland birds, with many papers on grassland sparrows.]

Watt, D. J. et al. 1984. The role of plumage polymorphism in dominance relationships of the White-throated Sparrow. Auk 101:110-121.

Watts, B. D. 1991. Effects of predation risk on distribution within and between habitats in Savannah Sparrows. Ecology 72:1515-1519.

Woods, P. E. 1999. A familiar mystery – polymorphism and the White-throated Sparrow. Birding 31:263-266.

Zink, R.M. 1986. Patterns and evolutionary significance of geographic variation in the Schistacea group of the Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca). Ornithological Monographs 40.

CARDINALS AND ALLIES

Family Cardinalidae

Chapter author: Christopher W. Thompson

Anderson, B.W., and R.J. Daugherty. 1974. Characteristics and reproductive biology of grosbeaks (Pheuticus) in the hybrid zone in South Dakota. Wilson Bulletin 86:1-11.

Anderson, M.E., and R.N. Conner. 1985. Northern Cardinal song in three forest habitats in eastern Texas. Wilson Bulletin 97:436-449.

Baker, M.C. 1991. Response of male Indigo and Lazuli buntings and their hybrids to song playback in allopatric and sympatric populations. Behaviour 119:225-242.

Baker, M.C., and A.E.M. Baker. 1988. Vocal and visual stimuli enabling copulation behavior in female buntings. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23:105-108.

Baker, M.C., and A.E.M. Baker. 1990. Reproductive behavior of female buntings: Isolating mechanisms in a hybridizing pair of species. Evolution 44:332-338.

Baker, M.C., and J.T. Boylan. 1995. A catalog of song syllables of Indigo and Lazuli buntings. Condor 97:1028-1040.

Beddall, B.G. 1963. Range expansion of the cardinal and other birds in the northeastern states. Wilson Bulletin 75:140-158.

Belcher, J.W., and W.L. Thompson. 1969. Territorial defense and individual song recognition in the Indigo Bunting. Jack-Pine Warbler 47:76-83.

Blake, C.H. 1969. Notes on the Indigo Bunting. Bird-banding 40:133-139.

Bradley, H.L. 1948. A life history study of the Indigo Bunting. Jack-Pine Warbler 26:103-113.

Carey, M. An analysis of factors governing pair-bonding period and the onset of laying in Indigo Buntings. Journal of Field Ornithology 53:240-248.

Carey, M., and V. Nolan, Jr. 1979. Population dynamics of Indigo Buntings and the evolution of avian polygyny. Evolution 33:1180-1192.

Conner, R.N., M.E. Anderson, and J.G. Dickson. 1986. Relationships among territory size, habitat, song, and nesting success of Northern Cardinals. Auk 103:23-31.

Dawson, W.R. 1958. Relation of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss to temperature in the Cardinal. Physiological Zoology 31:37-48.

Dittus, W.P., and R.E. Lemon. 1969. Effects of song tutoring and acoustic isolation on the song repertoires of cardinalids. Animal Behaviour 17:523-533.

Dittus, W.P., and R.E. Lemon. 1970. Auditory feedback in the singing of cardinals. Ibis 112:544-548.

Dow, D.D. 1969. Habitat utilization by cardinals in central and peripheral breeding populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 47:409-417.

Dow, D.D. 1969. Home range and habitat of the cardinal in peripheral and central populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 47:103-114.

Dow, D.D., and D.M. Scott. 1971. Dispersal and range expansion by the cardinal: An analysis of banding records. Canadian Journal of Zoology 49:185-198.

Eckerle, K.P., and R. Breitwisch. 1997. Reproductive success of the Northern Cardinal, a large host of Brown-headed Cowbirds. Condor 99:169-178.

Emlen, S.T. 1967. Migratory orientation in the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea. Part 1. Evidence for use of celestial cues. Auk 84:309-342.

Emlen, S.T. 1967. Migratory orientation in the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea. Part 2. Mechanism of celestial orientation. Auk 84:130-171.

Emlen, S.T. 1969. Bird migration: influence of physiological state upon celestial orientation. Science 165:716-718.

Emlen, S.T. 1970. Celestial rotation: its importance in the development of migratory orientation. Science 170:1198-1201.

Emlen, S.T. 1971. Geographic variation in Indigo Bunting song (Passerina cyanea). Animal Behaviour 19:407-408.

Emlen, S.T. 1971. The role of song in individual recognition in the Indigo Bunting. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 28:241-246.

Emlen, S.T. 1972. An experimental analysis of the parameters of bird song eliciting species recognition. Behaviour 41:130-171.

Emlen, S.T., J.D. Rising, and W.L. Thompson. 1975. A behavioral and morphological study of sympatry in the Indigo and Lazuli buntings of the Great Plains. Wilson Bulletin 87:145-179.

Emlen, S.T., W. Wiltschko, N.J. Demong, R. Wiltschko, and S. Bergman. 1976. Magnetic direction finding: Evidence for its use in migratory Indigo Buntings. Science 193:505-508.

Evans, D.L., and E.K. Bartels. 1983. Dickcissel (Spiza americana). Pages 311-318 in Impacts of coal surface mining on 25 migratory bird species of high federal interest (J.S. Armbruster, Ed.). FWS/OBS-83/35.

Filliater, T.S., and R. Breitwisch. 1997. Nesting provisioning by the extremely dichromatic Northern Cardinal. Wilson Bulletin 109:145-153.

Filliater, T.S., R. Breitwisch, and P.M. Nealen. 1994. Predation on cardinal nests: Does choice of a nest site matter? Condor 96:761-768.

Finck, E.J. 1984. Male Dickcissel behavior in primary and secondary habitats. Wilson Bulletin 96:672-680.

Fisk, E.J. 1974. Wintering populations of Painted Buntings in southern Florida. Bird-banding 45:353-359.

Fretwell, S. 1986. Distribution and abundance of the Dickcissel. Current Ornithology 4:211-242.

Gould, P.J. Territorial relationships between Cardinals and Pyrrhuloxias. Condor 63:246-256.

Gross, A.O. 1956. The recent reappearance of the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) in eastern North America. Auk 73:66-70.

Harmeson, J.P. 1974. Breeding ecology of the Dickcissel. Auk 91:348-359.

Hatch, S.A. 1983. Nestling growth relationships of Brown-headed Cowbirds and Dickcissels. Wilson Bulletin 95:669-671.

Hellack, J.J. 1976. Phenetic variation in the avian subfamily Cardinalinae. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 57:1-22.

Hellack, J.J., and G.D. Schnell. 1977. Phenetic analysis of the subfamily Cardinalinae using external and skeletal characters. Wilson Bulletin 89:130-148.

Hill, G.E. 1988. Age, plumage brightness, territory quality, and reproductive success in the Black-headed Grosbeak. Condor 90:379-388.

Hill, G.E. 1988. The function of delayed plumage maturation in male Black-headed Grosbeaks. Auk 105:1-10.

Hill, G.E. 1989. Late spring arrival and dull nuptial plumage: aggression avoidance by yearling males? Animal Behaviour 37:665-673.

Hinds, D.S., and W.A. Calder. 1973. Temperature regulation of the Pyrrhuloxia and the Arizona Cardinal. Physiological Zoology 46:55-71.

Hughes, J.P., R.J. Robel, K.E. Kemp, and J.L. Zimmerman. 1999. Effects of habitat on Dickcissel abundance and nest success in Conservation Reserve Program fields in Kansas. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:523-529.

Johnston, D.W. 1965. Ecology of the Indigo Bunting in Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 28:199-211.

Johnston, D.W. 1967. The identification of autumnal Indigo Buntings. Bird-banding 38:211-214.

Johnston, D.W. 1970. Age and sex distribution in Indigo Buntings. Bird-banding 41:113-118.

Johnston, D.W., and A.C. Downer. 1968. Migratory features of the Indigo Bunting in Jamaica and Florida. Bird-banding 39:277-293.

Klicka, J., A.J. Fry, R.M. Zink, and C.W. Thompson. 2001. A cytochrome b perspective on Passerina bunting relationships. Auk 118:611-623.

Kroodsma, R.L. 1974. Species-recognition behavior of territorial male Rose-breasted and Black-headed Grosbeaks (Pheucticus). Auk 91:55-64.

Kroodsma, R.L. 1974. Hybridization in grosbeaks (Pheucticus) in North Dakota. Wilson Bulletin 86:230-236.

Kroodsma, R.L. 1975. Hybridization in buntings (Passerina) in North Dakota and eastern Montana. Auk 92:66-80.

Lanyon, S.M., and C.F. Thompson. 1984. Visual displays and their context in the Painted Bunting. Wilson Bulletin 96:396-407.

Lanyon, S.M., and C.F. Thompson. 1986. Site fidelity and habitat quality as determinants of settlement pattern in male Painted Buntings. Condor 88:206-210.

Lemon, R.E. 1965. The song repertoires of cardinals (Richmondena cardinalis) at London, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 43:559-569.

Lemon, R.E. 1966. Geographic variation in the song of cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44:413-428.

Lemon, R.E. 1967. The response of cardinals to songs of different dialects. Animal Behaviour 15:538-545.

Lemon, R.E. 1968. The displays and call notes of cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 46:141-151.

Lemon, R.E. 1968. The relation between organization and function of song in cardinals. Behaviour 32:158-178.

Lemon, R.E. 1974. Song dialects, song matching and species recognition by Cardinals, Richmondena cardinalis. Ibis 116:545-548.

Lemon, R.E. 1975. How birds develop song dialects. Condor 77:385-406.

Lemon, R.E. 1975. Repetitions and pattern switches in songs of Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 38:294-303.

Lemon, R.E., and C. Chatfield. 1971. Organization of song in cardinals. Animal Behaviour 19:1-17.

Lemon, R.E., and C. Chatfield. 1973. Organization of song of Rose-breasted Grosbeaks. Animal Behaviour 21:28-44.

Lemon, R.E., and A. Herzog. 1969. The vocal behavior of cardinals and pyrrhuloxias in Texas. Condor 71:1-15.

Lemon, R.E., and D.M. Scott. 1966. On the development of song in young cardinals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44:191-197.

Linville, S.U., and R. Breitwisch. 1997. Carotenoid availability and plumage coloration in a wild population of Northern Cardinals. Auk 114:796-800.

Linville, S.U., R. Breitwisch, and A.J. Schilling. 1998. Plumage brightness as an indicator of parental care in male and female Northern Cardinals. Animal Behaviour 55:119-127.

Long, C.A., C.F. Long, J. knops, and D.H. Matulionis. 1965. Reproduction in the Dickcissel. Wilson Bulletin 77:251-256.

Margoliash, D., C. Staicer, and S.A. Inoue. 1991. Stereotyped and plastic song in adult Indigo Buntings, Passerina cyanea. Animal Behaviour 42:367-388.

McElroy, D.B., and G. Ritchison. 1996. Effect of mate removal on singing behavior and movement patterns in female Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 108:550-555.

Meanley, B. 1963. Nesting ecology and habits of the Dickcissel on the Arkansas Grand Prairie. Wilson Bulletin 75:280.

Nealen, P.M., and R. Breitwisch. 1997. Northern Cardinal sexes defend nests equally. Wilson Bulletin 109:269-278.

Parkes, K.C. 1997. The Northern Cardinals of the Caribbean slope of Mexico, with description of an additional subspecies from Yucatan. Pages 129-138 in The Era of Alan R. Phillips: A Festschrift (R.W. Dickerman, Ed.), Horizon Communications, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Parmelee, D.F. 1959. The breeding behavior of the Painted Bunting in southern Oklahoma. Bird-banding 30:1-18.

Parmelee, D.F. 1964. Survival in the Painted Bunting. Living Bird 3:5-7.

Payne, R.B. 1981. Song learning and social interaction in Indigo Buntings. Animal Behaviour 29:688-697.

Payne, R.B. 1982. Ecological consequences of song matching: breeding success and intraspecific song mimicry in Indigo Buntings. Ecology 63:401-411.

Payne, R.B. 1983. The social context of song mimicry: song-matching dialects in Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). Animal Behaviour 31:788-805.

Payne, R.B. 1989. Indigo Bunting. Pages 153-172 in Lifetime reproductive success in birds (I. Newton, Ed.), Academic Press, London.

Payne, R.B. 1991. Natal dispersal and population structure in a migratory songbird, the Indigo Bunting. Evolution 45:49-62.

Payne, R.B., and L.L. Payne. 1989. Heritability estimates and behaviour observations: extra-pair matings in Indigo Buntings. Animal Behaviour 38:457-467.

Payne, R.B., and L.L. Payne. 1990. Survival estimates of Indigo Buntings: comparison of banding recoveries and local observations. Condor 92:938-946.

Payne, R.B., and L.L. Payne. 1993. Breeding dispersal in Indigo Buntings: Circumstances and consequences for breeding success and population structure. Condor 95:1-24.

Payne, R.B., and D.F. Westneat. 1988. A genetic and behavioral analysis of mate choice and song neighborhoods in Indigo Buntings. Evolution 42:935-947.

Payne, R.B., L.L. Payne, and S.M. Doehlert. 1987. Song, mate choice and the question of kin recognition in a migratory songbird. Animal Behaviour 35:35-47.

Payne, R.B., L.L. Payne, and S.M. Doehlert. 1988. Biological and cultural success of song memes in Indigo Buntings. Ecology 69:104-117.

Payne, R.B., W.L. Thompson, K.L. Fiala, and L.L. Sweany. 1981. Local song traditions in Indigo Buntings: Cultural transmission of behavior patterns across generations. Behaviour 77:199-221.

Quay, W.B. 1987. Physical characteristics and arrival times of Indigo Buntings in eastern Missouri. North American Bird Bander 12:2-7.

Rice, J.O., and W.L. Thompson. 1968. Song development in the Indigo Bunting. Animal Behaviour 16:462-469.

Ritchison, G. 1983. Response of Black-headed Grosbeaks to songs of conspecifics. Wilson Bulletin 95:132-138.

Ritchison, G. 1983. The function of singing in female Black-headed Grosbeaks (Pheucticus melanocephalus): Family-group maintenance. Auk 100:105-116.

Ritchison, G. 1983. Breeding biology of the Black-headed Grosbeak in northern Utah. Western Birds 14:159-167.

Ritchison, G. 1986. The singing behavior of female Northern Cardinals. Condor 88:156-159.

Ritchison, G. 1988. Song repertoires and the singing behavior of male Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 100:583-603.

Ritchison, G., P.H. Klatt, and D.F. Westneat. 1994. Mate-guarding and extra-pair paternity in Northern Cardinal. Condor 96:1055-1063.

Rohwer, S. 1986. A previously unknown plumage of first-year Indigo Buntings and theories for delayed plumage maturation. Auk 103:281-292.

Schartz, R.L., and J.L. Zimmerman. 1971. The time and energy budget of the male Dickcissel (Spiza americana). Condor 73:65-76.

Scott, D.M., R.E. Lemon, and J.A. Darley. 1987. Relaying interval after nest failure in Gray Catbirds and Northern Cardinals. Wilson Bulletin 99:708-712.

Shiovitz, K.A. 1975. The process of species-specific song recognition in the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) and its relationship to the organization of avian acoustical behaviour. Behaviour 55:128-179.

Shiovitz, K.A., and W.L. Thompson. 1970. Geographic variation in song composition of the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea. Animal Behaviour 18:151-158.

Sibley, C.G., and L.L. Short, Jr. 1959. Hybridization in the buntings (Passerina) of the Great Plains. Auk 76:443-463.

Storer, R.W., and D.A. Zimmerman. 1959. Variation in the Blue Grosbeak (Guiraca caerulea) with special reference to the Mexican population. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 609:1-13.

Storer, R.W. 1951. Variation in the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris), with special reference to wintering populations. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 532:1-12.

Tamplin, J.W., J.W. Demastes, and J.V. Remsen, Jr. 1993. Biochemical and morphometric relationships among some members of the Cardinalidae. Wilson Bulletin 105:93-113.

Taylor, W.K., B.H. Anderson, and H.M. Stevenson. 1989. Breeding range extension of the Indigo Bunting, Painted Bunting, and Blue Grosbeak in Florida with new records for Seminole County. Florida Field Naturalist 17:1-10.

Thompson, C.W. 1991. The sequence of molts and plumages of Painted Buntings and implications for theories of delayed plumage maturation. Condor 93:209-235.

Thompson, C.W. 1991. Is the Painted Bunting actually two species? Problems determining species limits between allopatric populations. Condor 93:987-1000.

Thompson, C. W., and M. Leu. 1994. Determining homology of molts and plumages to address evolutionary questions: a rejoinder regarding emberizid finches. Condor 96:769-782.

Thompson, C.W, and M. Leu. 1995. Molts and plumages of Orange-breasted Buntings: Implications for theories of male and female delayed plumage maturation. Auk 112:1-19.

Thompson, W.L. 1968. The songs of five species of Passerina. Behaviour 31:261-287.

Thompson, W.L. 1969. Song recognition by territorial male buntings (Passerina). Animal Behaviour 17:658-663.

Thompson, W.L. 1970. Song variation in a population of Indigo Buntings. Auk 87:58-71.

Thompson, W.L. 1972. Singing behavior of the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 31:39-59.

Thompson, W.L. 1976. Vocalizations of the Lazuli Bunting. Condor 78:195-207.

Thompson, W.L., and J.O. Rice. 1970. Calls of the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 27:35-46.

Todd, W.E.C. 1923. A review of the genus Cyanocompsa. Auk 40:58-69.

West, D.A. 1962. Hybridization in grosbeaks (Pheucticus) of the Great Plains. Auk 79:399-424.

Westneat, D.F. 1987. Extra-pair copulations in a predominantly monogamous bird: Observations of behavior. Animal Behaviour 35:865-876.

Westneat, D.F. 1987. Extra-pair fertilizations in a predominantly monogamous bird: Genetic evidence. Animal Behaviour 35:877-886.

Westneat, D.F. 1988. Male parental care and extra-pair copulations in the Indigo Bunting. Auk 105:149-160.

Westneat, D.F. 1988. The relationship among polygyny, male parental care, and female breeding success in the Indigo Bunting. Auk 105:372-374.

Westneat, D.F. 1989. Intensity of nest defense in Indigo Buntings increases with stage and not number of visits. Auk 106:747-749.

Westneat, D.F. 1990. Genetic parentage in the Indigo Bunting: A study using DNA fingerprinting. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 27:67-76.

Weston, H.G. 1947. Breeding behavior of the Black-headed Grosbeak. Condor 49:54-73.

Wiltschko, W., R. Wiltschko, S.T. Emlen, and N.J. Demong. 1980. Nocturnal activity and orientation behavior during spring migration and early summer in the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea. Journal of Comparative Physiology 137:47-49.

Wolfenbarger, L.L. 1999. Red coloration of male Northern Cardinals correlates with mate quality and territory quality. Behavioral Ecology 10:80-90.

Yamaguchi, A. 1998. A sexually dimorphic learned birdsong in the Northern Cardinal. Condor 100:504-511.

Yamaguchi, A. 1998. Can a sexually dimorphic learned birdsong be used for male-female recognition? Behaviour 135:833-844.

Young, B.E. 1991. Annual molts and interruption of the fall migration for molting in Lazuli Buntings. Condor 93:236-250.

Zimmerman, J.L. 1966. Effects of extended tropical photoperiod and temperature on the Dickcissel 68:377-387.

Zimmerman, J.L. 1966. Polygyny in the Dickcissel. Auk 83:534-546.

Zimmerman, J.L. 1971. The territory and its density dependent effect in Spiza americana. Auk 88:591-612.

Zimmerman, J.L. 1982. Nesting success of Dickcissels (Spiza americana) in preferred and less preferred habitats. Auk 99:292-298.

Zimmerman, J.L. 1983. Cowbird parasitism of Dickcissels in different habitats and at different nest densities. Wilson Bulletin 95:7-22.

Zimmerman, J.L. 1984. Nest predation and its relationship to habitat and nest density in Dickcissels. Condor 86:68-72.

BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES AND ALLIES

Family Icteridae

Chapter author: Alvaro Jaramillo

Major Books

Beletsky, L. D. 1996. The red-winged blackbird: the biology of a strongly polygynous songbird. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Beletsky, L. D., and G. H. Orians. 1996. Red-winged blackbirds: decision-making and reproductive success. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Davies, N. B. 2000. Cuckoos, cowbirds and other cheats. T. & A. D. Poyser Ltd., London.

Jaramillo, A., and P. Burke. 1999. New World blackbirds: the icterids. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Morrison, M. L., L. S. Hall, S. K. Robinson, S. I. Rothstein, D. C. Hahn, and T. D. Rich (Eds.). 1999. Research and management of the brown-headed cowbird in Western landscapes. Studies in Avian Biology 18.

Orians, G. H. 1980. Some adaptations of marsh-nesting blackbirds. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Searcy, W. A., and K. Yasukawa. 1995. Polygyny and sexual selection in Red-Winged Blackbirds. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Skutch, A. F. 1996. Orioles, blackbirds, and their kin: a natural history. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Smith, J. N., S. I. Rothstein, and S. K. Robinson (Eds.) 2000. Ecology and management of cowbirds and their hosts: studies in the conservation of North American passerine birds. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

Other articles

ANKNEY, C.D., AND D.M. SCOTT. 1982. On the mating system of Brown-headed Cowbirds. Wilson Bulletin 94:260-268.

ANTHONY, A. W. 1923. Predatory Brewer’s Blackbirds. Condor 25:106-106.

ARNOLD, K.A., AND L.J. FOLSE, Jr. 1977. Movements of the Great-tailed Grackle in Texas. Wilson Bulletin 89:602-608.

AWEIDA, M.K. 1995. Repertoires, territory size and mate attraction in Western Meadowlarks. Condor 97:1080-1083.

AVISE, J. C., and R. M. ZINK. 1988. Molecular genetic divergence between avian sibling species: King and Clapper rails, Long-billed and Short-billed dowitchers, Boat-tailed and Great-tailed grackles, and Tufted and Black-crested titmice. Auk 105:516-528.

BALL, R.M. jr., S. FREEMAN, R.C. JAMES, E. BERMINGHAM, AND J.C. AVISE. 1988. Phylogeographic population structure of Red-winged Blackbirds assessed by mitochondrial DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 85:1558-1562.

BARLOW, J., B.W. MCGILLVRAY, AND T. DICKINSON. 1994. Song structure and speciation in meadowlarks. Journal fur Ornithologie Band. 135:25.

BEASON, R.C. 1986. Natural and induced magnetization in the bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Journal of Experimental Biology 125:49-56.

BEASON, R.C. 1987. Interaction of visual and non-visual cues during migratory orientation by the Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Journal fuer Ornithologie 128:317-324.

BEASON, R.C. 1989. Use of an inclination compass during migratory orientation by the Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Ethology 81:291-299.

BEECHER, W.J. 1951. Adaptations for food-getting in the American Blackbirds. Auk 68:411-440.

BEEDY, E.C., AND W.J. III HAMILTON. 1997. Tricolored Blackbird status update and management guidelines. September. (Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc. 97-099.) Sacramento, CA. Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR and California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA.

BELETSKY, L.D. 1982. Vocal behavior of the Northern Oriole. Wilson Bulletin 94:372-381.

BELETSKY, L.D., AND G.H. ORIANS. 1993. Factors affecting which male Red-winged Blackbirds acquire territories. Condor 95:782-791.

BJORKLUND, M. 1991. Evolution, phylogeny, sexual dimorphism and mating system in the grackles (Quiscalus spp., Icterinae). Evolution 45:608-621.

BLEDSOE, A.H. 1988. Nuclear DNA evolution and phylogeny of the New World nine-primaried oscines. Auk 105:504-515.

BOLLINGER, E.K., AND T.A. GAVIN. 1991. Patterns of extra-pair fertilization in Bobolinks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 29:1-7.

BRAY, O.E., W.C. ROYALL, J.L. GUARINO, AND DE GRAZIO. 1973. Migration and seasonal distribution of Common Grackles banded in North and South Dakota. Bird Banding 44:1-12.

BRAY, O.E., W.C. ROYALL, J.L. GUARINO, AND R.E. JOHNSON. 1979. Activities of radio-equipped common grackles during fall migration. Wilson Bulletin 91:78-87.

BRISKIE, J.V., AND S.G. SEALY. 1990. Evolution of short incubation periods in the parasitic cowbirds, Molothrus spp. Auk 107:790-794.

BRITTINGHAM, M.C., AND S.A. TEMPLE. 1983. Have cowbirds caused forest songbirds to decline? BioScience 33:31-35.

BURNELL, K., AND S.I. ROTHSTEIN. 1994. Variation in the structure of female Brown-headed Cowbird vocalizations and its relation to vocal function and development. Condor 96:703-715.

CAPP, M.S. 1992. Tests of the function of the song repertoire in Bobolinks. Condor 94:468-479.

CAPP, M.S., AND W.A. SEARCY. 1991. Acoustical communication of aggressive intentions by territorial male Bobolinks. Behavioural Ecology 2:319-326.

CARTER, M.D. 1986. The parasitic behavior of the Bronzed Cowbird in south Texas. Condor 88:11-25.

CHAPMAN, F.M. 1890. On the winter distribution of the Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) with remarks on its routes of migration. Auk 7:39-45.

CORBIN, K.W., AND C.G. SIBLEY. 1977. Rapid evolution in orioles of the genus Icterus. Condor 79:335-342.

CORBIN, K.W., C.G. SIBLEY, AND A. FERGUSON. 1979. Genic changes associated with the establishment of sympatry in orioles of the genus Icterus. Evolution 33:624-633.

CORMAN, T., AND G. MONSON. 1995. First United States nesting records of the Streak-backed Oriole. Western Birds 26:49-53.

CRUZ, A., T. MANOLIS, AND J. WILEY. 1985. The Shiny Cowbird: a brood parasite expanding its range in the Caribbean region. Pages 607-620 in Neotropical Ornithology (P.A. Buckley, M. Foster, E. Morton, R. Ridgely and F. Buckley, Eds.). Ornithological Monographs 36.

CRUZ, A., J.W. WILEY, T.K. NAKAMURA, AND W. POST. 1989. The Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis in the West Indian region – biogeographic and ecological implications. Pages 519-540 in Biogeography of the West Indies – past, present, and future (C.A. Woods, Ed.). Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, FL.

D’AGINCOURT, L.G., AND J.B. FALLS. 1983. Variation of repertoire use in the Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61:1086-1093.

DARLEY, J.A. 1982. Territoriality and mating behavior of the male Brown-headed Cowbird. Condor 84:15-21.

DARLEY, J.A. 1983. Territorial behavior of the female Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). Canadian Journal of Zoology 61:65-69.

DAVIDSON, A.H. 1994. Common Grackle predation on adult passerines. Wilson Bulletin 106:174-175.

DAVIS, D.E. 1942. The number of eggs laid by cowbirds. Condor 44:10-12.

DINSMORE, J.J., AND S.J. DINSMORE. 1993. Range expansion of the Great-tailed Grackle in the 1900s. The Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science 100:54-59.

DOLBEER, R.A. 1978. Movements and migration patterns of Red-winged Blackbirds: a continental overview. Journal of Field Ornithology 49:17-34.

FANKHAUSER, D.P. 1968. A comparison of migration between blackbirds and starlings. Wilson Bulletin 80:225-227.

FANKHAUSER, D.P. 1971. Annual survival rates of blackbirds and starlings. Bird Banding 42:36-42.

FLOOD, N.J. 1985. Incidences of polygyny and extrapair copulation in the Northern Oriole. Auk 102:410-413.

FLOOD, N.J. 1989. Coloration in New World orioles. 1. Tests of predation-related hypotheses. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 25:49-56.

FREEMAN, S., AND R.M. ZINK. 1995. A phylogenetic study of the blackbirds based on variation in mitochondrial DNA restriction sites. Systematic Biology 44:409-420.

FRIEDMANN, H., AND L.F. KIFF. 1985. The parasitic cowbirds and their hosts. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 2:225-304.

GAVIN, T.A., AND E.K. BOLLINGER. 1985. Multiple paternity in a territorial passerine: the Bobolink. Auk 102:550-555.

GIBBS, H.L., P.T. WEATHERHEAD, P.T. BOAG, B.N. WHITE, AND ET AL. 1990. Realized reproductive success of polygynous red-winged blackbirds revealed by DNA markers. Science 250:1394-1397.

GLASSEL, R. 1993. A Minnesota Great-tailed Grackle with notes on the species’ range expansion in the midwest. The Loon 65:148-150.

HAHN, D.C., AND R.C. FLEISCHER. 1995. DNA fingerprint similarity between female and juvenile brown-headed cowbirds trapped together. Animal Behaviour 49:6.

HAMILTON, W.J. III 1962. Bobolink migratory pathways and their experimental analysis under night skies. Auk 79:208-233.

HUTCHESON, W.H., AND W. POST. 1990. Shiny Cowbird collected in South Carolina: first North American specimen. Wilson Bulletin 102:561-561.

KELLY, S.T., AND M.E. DECAPITA. 1982. Cowbird control and its effect on Kirtland’s Warbler reproductive success. Wilson Bulletin 94:363-365.

KOK, O.B. 1971. Vocal behavior of the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus prosopidicola). Condor 73:348-363.

LANYON, S.M. 1992. Interspecific brood parasitism in blackbirds (Icterinae): A phylogenetic perspective. Science 255:77-79.

LANYON, S.M. 1994. Polyphyly of the blackbird genus Agelaius and the importance of assumptions of monophyly in comparative studies. Evolution 48:679-693.

LANYON, S.M., AND K.E. OMLAND. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of the blackbirds (Icteridae): five lineages revealed by cytochrome-b sequence data. Auk 116:629-639.

LANYON, W.E. 1956b. Ecological aspects of the sympatric distribution of meadowlarks in the north-central states. Ecology 37:98-108.

LANYON, W.E. 1962. Species limits and distribution of meadowlarks of the desert grasslands. Auk 79:183-207.

LOWTHER, P.E. 1975. Geographic and ecological variation in the family Icteridae. Wilson Bulletin 87:481-495.

MARTIN, S.G. 1974. Adaptations for polygynous breeding in the bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus. American Zoologist 14:109-119.

MARVIL, R.E., AND A. CRUZ. 1989. Impact of Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism on the reproductive success of the Solitary Vireo. Auk 106:476-480.

NERO, R.W. 1956. A behavior study of the Red-winged Blackbird. I. Mating and nesting activities. Wilson Bulletin 68:5-37.

NERO, R.W. 1964. Comparative behavior of the Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird, and other icterids. Wilson Bulletin 75:376-413.

OMLAND, K.E., S.M. LANYON, AND S.J. FRITZ. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of the New World orioles (Icterus): The importance of dense taxon sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12:224-239.

ORIANS, G.H. 1972. The adaptive significance of mating systems in the Icteridae. Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress. 15:389-398.

ORIANS, G.H., AND G.M. CHRISTMAN. 1968. A comparative study of the behavior of Red-winged, Tricolored and Yellow-headed Blackbirds. University of California Publications in Zoology 84:1-81.

ORIANS, G.H., AND G. COLLIER. 1963. Competition and blackbird social systems. Evolution 17:449-459.

PARKES, K.C. 1975. Tail molt in the family Icteridae. Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress 15:674.

PICMAN, J. 1981. The adaptive value of polygyny in marsh-nesting red-winged blackbirds: renesting, territory tenacity, and mate fidelity of females. Canadian Journal of Zoology 59:2284-2296.

POST, W. 1992. First Florida specimens of the Shiny Cowbird. Florida Field Naturalist 20:17-18.

POST, W., A. CRUZ, AND D.B. MCNAIR. 1993. The North American invasion pattern of the Shiny Cowbird. Journal of Field Ornithology 64:32-41.

RISING, J.D. 1970. Morphological variation and evolution in some North American orioles. Systematic Zoology 19:315-351.

RISING, J.D. 1973. Morphological variation and status of the orioles, Icterus galbula, I. bullockii, and I. abeillei in the northern Great Plains and in Durango, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Zoology 51:1267-1273.

RISING, J.D. 1983. The progress of oriole hybridization in Kansas. Auk 100:885-897.

RISING, J.D. 1983. The Great Plains hybrid zones. Current Ornithology 1:131-157.

RISING, J.D. 1996. The stability of the oriole hybrid zone in western Kansas. Condor 98:658-663.

ROBBINS, M.B., AND D.A. EASTERLEA. 1981. Range expansion of the Bronzed Cowbird with the first Missouri record. Condor 83:270-272.

ROBINSON, S.K. 1986. The evolution of social behaviour and mating systems in the blackbirds (Icterinae). Pages 175-200 in Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution. (P.I. Rubenstein and R.A. Wrangham, Eds.). Princeton University Press, Princeton. New Jersey.

ROHWER, S.A. 1972. A multivariate assessment of interbreeding between the meadowlarks, Sturnella. Systematic Zoology 21:313-338.

ROHWER, S.A. 1972. Distribution of meadowlarks in the central and southern Great Plains and the Desert Grasslands of eastern New Mexico and west Texas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 75:1-19.

ROHWER, S.A. 1973. Significance of sympatry to behavior and evolution of Great Plains meadowlarks. Evolution 27:44-57.

ROHWER, S.A., AND M.S. JOHNSON. 1992. Scheduling differences of molt and migration for Baltimore and Bullock’s Orioles persist in a common environment. Condor 94:992-994.

ROHWER, S.A., AND J. MANNING. 1992. Differences in timing and number of molts for Baltimore and Bullock’s Orioles: implications to hybrid fitness and theories of delayed plumage maturation. Condor 92:125-140.

ROTHSTEIN, S.I. 1972. Territoriality and mating system in the parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) as determined from captive birds. American Zoologist 12:659-659.

ROTHSTEIN, S.I., D.A. YOKEL, AND R.C. FLEISCHER. 1986. Social dominance, mating and spacing systems, female fecundity, and vocal dialects in captive and free-ranging Brown-headed Cowbirds. Current Ornithology 3:127-185.

ROWHER, S. 1976. Species distinctness and adaptive differences in southwestern meadowlarks. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History University of Kansas 44:1-14.

SCHEUERING, E.J., AND G.L. IVEY. 1995. First nesting record of the Great-tailed Grackle in Oregon. Wilson Bulletin 107:562-563.

SCOTT, D.M., AND C.D. ANKNEY. 1980. Fecundity of the Brown-headed Cowbird in southern Ontario. Auk 97:677-683.

SHAKE, W.F., AND J.P. MATTSON. 1975. Three years of cowbird control: An effort to save the Kirtland’s Warbler. Jack Pine Warbler 53:48-53.

SMITH, P.W., AND A., SPRUNT, IV. 1987. The Shiny Cowbird reaches the United States. American Birds. 41:370-371.

STEPNEY, P.H.R. 1975. Wintering distribution of Brewer’s Blackbird: historical aspects, recent changes and fluctuations. Bird Banding 46:106-125.

STEPNEY, P.H.R., AND D.M. POWER. 1973. Analysis of eastern breeding expansion of Brewer’s Blackbird plus general aspects of avian expansions. Wilson Bulletin 85:452-464.

VERNER, J., AND M.F. WILLSON. 1966. The influence of habitats on mating systems of North American passerine birds. Ecology 47:143-147.

WEATHERHEAD, P.J., AND R.J. ROBERTSON. 1977. Harem size, territory quality, and reproductive success in the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 55:1261-1267.

WEBSTER, M.S. 1992. Sexual dimorphism, mating system and body size in New World blackbirds (Icterinae). Evolution 46:1621-1641.

WEBSTER, M.S. 1994. Female-defence polygyny in a Neotropical bird, the Montezuma Oropendola. Animal Behaviour 48:779-794.

WITTENBERGER, J.F. 1980. Vegetation structure, food supply, and polygyny in Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Ecology 61:140-150.

WITTENBERGER, J.F. 1983. A contextual analysis of two song variants in the Bobolink. Condor 85:172-184.

FINCHES AND ALLIES

Family Fringillidae

Chapter author: Jeff Groth

Benkman, C. W. 1987. Food profitability and the foraging ecology of crossbills. Ecological Monographs 57:251-267.

Benkman, C. W. 1993. Adaptation to single resources and the evolution of crossbill (Loxia) diversity. Ecological Monographs 63:305-325.

Clement, P. 2000. Finches and sparrows. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Groth, J. G. 1993. Evolutionary differentiation in morphology, vocalizations, and allozymes among nomadic sibling species in the North American Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) complex. University of California Publications in Zoology 127.

Herremans, M. 1990. Taxonomy and evolution in redpolls Carduelis flammea-hornemanni; a multivariate study of their biometry. Ardea 78:441-458.

Hill, G. E. 1991. Plumage coloration is a sexually selected indicator of male quality. Nature 350:337-339.

Hill, G. E., and R. Montgomerie. 1994. Plumage colour signals nutritional condition in the house finch. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B 258:47-52.

Hochachka, W. M., J. V. Wells, K. V. Rosenberg, D. L. Tessaglia-Hymes, and A. A. Dhondt. 1999. Irruptive migration of Common Redpolls. Condor 101:195-204.

Knox, A. 1988. The taxonomy of redpolls. Ardea 76:1-26.

Mundinger, P. C. 1970. Vocal imitation and individual recognition of finch calls. Science 168:480-482.

Mundinger, P. C. 1979. Call learning in the Carduelinae: ethological and systematic considerations. Systematic Zoology 28:270-283.

Seutin, G., P. T. Boag, and L. M. Ratcliffe. 1992. Plumage variability in redpolls from Churchill, Manitoba. Auk 109:771-785.

Troy, D. M. 1985. A phenetic analysis of the redpolls Carduelis flammea flammea and C. hornemanni exilipes. Auk 102:82-96.

Zahn, S. N., and S. I. Rothstein. 1999. Recent increase in male House Finch plumage variation and its possible relationship to avian pox disease. Auk 116:35-44.

OLD WORLD SPARROWS

Family Passeridae

Chapter author: Kathleen Groschupf

Barlow, J. C., and S. N. Leckie. 2000. Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). In The birds of North America, No. 560 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Kendeigh, S. C. (Ed.) 1973. A symposium on the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and European tree sparrow (P. montanus) in North America. Ornithological Monograph 14.

Lowther, P. E., and C. L. Cink. House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). In The birds of North America, No. 12 (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Eds.). Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Parkin, D. T. Evolutionary genetics of House Sparrows. Pages 381-406 in Avian genetics: a population and ecological approach (F. Cooke and P. A. Buckley, Eds.). Academic Press Inc., London.

Summers-Smith, J. D. 1988. The sparrows. A study of the genus Passer. T. & A. D. Poyser Ltd., Calton, England.

1 comment to References for The Sibley Guide to Bird Life & Behavior

  • Judith Siverson

    Is there a “critical period” for nesting behavior of wading birds? (wood storks, egrets, herons, spoonbills) and/or is there a “critical” depth of water for the same?

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